Arsenic contamination: a potential hazard to the affected areas of West Bengal, India
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Arsenic contamination in groundwater is becoming more and more a worldwide problem. Nearing 50 million of people are at health risk from arsenic contamination at Ganga–Meghna–Bramhaputra basin. The experimental results of the five blocks under Malda district of West Bengal, India, showed that the arsenic concentration in groundwater (0.41–1.01 mg/l) was higher than the permissible limit for drinking water (0.01 mg/l) (WHO) and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) permissible limit for irrigation water (0.10 mg/l). The soil arsenic level (13.12 mg/kg) crossed the global average (10.0 mg/kg), but within the maximum acceptable limit for agricultural soil (20.0 mg/kg) recommended by the European Union. The total arsenic concentration on food crops varied from 0.000 to 1.464 mg/kg of dry weight. The highest mean arsenic concentration was found in potato (0.456 mg/kg), followed by rice grain (0.429 mg/kg). The total mean arsenic content (milligrams per kg dry weight) in cereals ranged from 0.121 to 0.429 mg/kg, in pulses and oilseeds ranged from 0.076 to 0.168 mg/kg, in tuber crops ranged from 0.243 to 0.456 mg/kg, in spices ranged from 0.031 to 0.175 mg/kg, in fruits ranged from 0.021 to 0.145 mg/kg and in vegetables ranged from 0.032 to 0.411 mg/kg, respectively. Hence, arsenic accumulation in cereals, pulses, oilseed, vegetables, spices, cole crop and fruits crop might not be safe in future without any sustainable mitigation strategies to avert the potential arsenic toxicity on the human health in the contaminated areas.
KeywordsArsenic Water Soil Rice Mango Vegetables Pulses Amaranth
The authors are thankful to the National Agricultural Innovation Project, Component-IV (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Pusa, New Delhi, India, for providing fund to carry out the investigation, and to the Department of Agronomy & Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India, for providing the laboratory facilities.
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