Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 433–444 | Cite as

Enrichment and solubility of trace metals associated with magnetic extracts in industrially derived contaminated soils

  • S. G. Lu
  • H. Y. Wang
  • Y. Y. Chen


Magnetic fractions (MFs) in industrially derived contaminated soils were extracted with a magnetic separation procedure. Total, soluble, and bioaccessible Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the MFs and non-magnetic fractions (NMFs) were analyzed using aqua regia and extraction tests, such as deionized water, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and gastric juice simulation (GJST) test. Compared with the non-magnetic fractions, soil MFs were enriched with Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni. Extraction tests indicated that soil MFs contained higher water, TCLP, and GJST-extractable Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn concentrations than the soil NMFs. The TCLP-extractable Pb concentration in the MFs exceeded the USEPA hazardous waste criteria, suggesting that soil MFs have a potentially environmental pollution risk. Solubility of trace metals was variable in the different extraction tests, which has the order of GJST > TCLP > water. TCLP test showed Cu and Zn were more mobile than Cr and Pb while bioaccessibility of trace metal defined by GJST test showed the order of Cu ≈ Cr ≈ Zn > Pb. These findings suggested that the MFs in the industrially derived contaminated soils had higher possibility of polluting water bodies, and careful environmental impact assessment was necessary.


Contaminated soil Trace metal Magnetic fraction Solubility Toxic characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) 



This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40971131, 40771096).


  1. Al-Abed Souhail, R., Philip, L. H., Jegadeesan, G., Madhavan, N., & Allen, D. (2006). Comparative evaluation of short-term leach tests for heavy metal release from mineral processing waste. Science of the Total Environment, 364, 14–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bao, S. D. (2000). Soil and agricultural chemistry analysis. Beijing: China Agricultural Press.Google Scholar
  3. Blaha, U., Appel, E., & Stanjek, H. (2008). Determination of anthropogenic boundary depth in industrially polluted soil and semi-quantification of heavy metal loads using magnetic susceptibility. Environmental Pollution, 156, 278–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blundell, A., Hannam, J. A., Dearing, J. A., & Boyle, J. F. (2009). Detecting atmospheric pollution in surface soils using magnetic measurements: A reappraisal using an England and Wales database. Environmental Pollution, 157, 2878–2890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiang, K. Y., Tsai, C. C., & Wang, K. S. (2009). Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals in APC residue from an MSW incinerator using various extraction methods. Waste Management, 29, 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Oliveira, T. S., Teogenes, S., Fontes, M. P. F., da Costa, L. M., Liovando, A. H., & Horn, A. H. (2000). Relationship between magnetization and trace elements content of Brazilian soils from different parent materials. Soil Science, 165, 825–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dermatas, D., Shen, G., Chrysochoou, M., Grubb, D. G., Menounou, N., & Dutko, P. (2006). Pb speciation versus TCLP release in army firing range soils. Journal Hazardous Materials, 136, 34–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dermont, G., Bergeron, M., Mercier, G., & Richer-Laflèche, M. (2008). Soil washing for metal removal: A review of physical/chemical technologies and field applications. Journal Hazardous Materials, 152, 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Durza, D. (1999). Heavy metals contamination and magnetic susceptibility in soils around metallurgical plant. Physic and Chemistry of the Earth, 24, 541–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gautam, P., Blaha, U., Appel, E., & Neupane, G. (2004). Environmental magnetic approach towards the quantification of pollution in Kathmandu urban area, Nepal. Physic and Chemistry of the Earth, 29, 973–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goddu, S. R., Appel, E., Jordanova, D., & Wehland, R. (2004). Magnetic properties of road dust from Visakhapatnam (India)—relationship to industrial pollution and road traffic. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 29, 985–995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanesch, M., & Scholger, R. (2002). Mapping of heavy metal loadings in soils by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements. Environmental Geology, 42, 857–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kierczak, J., Neel, C., Aleksander-Kwaterczak, U., Helios-Rybicka, E., Bril, H., & Puziewicz, J. (2008). Solid speciation and mobility of potentially toxic elements from natural and contaminated soils: A combined approach. Chemosphere, 73, 776–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kukier, U., Ishak, C. F., Sumner, M. E., & Miller, W. P. (2003). Composition and element solubility of magnetic and non-magnetic fly ash fractions. Environmental Pollution, 123, 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lin, K. L., & Chang, C. T. (2006). Leaching characteristics of slag from the melting treatment of municipal solid waste incinerator ash. Journal Hazardous Materials, B135, 296–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lu, S. G., Bai, S. Q., & Xue, Q. F. (2007). Magnetic properties as indicators of heavy metals pollution in urban topsoils: A case study from the city of Luoyang, China. Geophysics Journal International, 171, 568–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lu, S. G., Chen, Y. Y., Shan, H. D., & Bai, S. Q. (2009). Mineralogy and heavy metal leachability of magnetic fractions separated from some Chinese coal fly ashes. Journal Hazardous Materials, 169, 246–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Madrid, F., Reinoso, R., Florido, M. C., Diaz Barrientos, E., Ajmone-Marsan, F., Davidson, C. M., et al. (2007). Estimating the extractability of potentially toxic metals in urban soils: A comparison of several extracting solutions. Environmental Pollution, 147, 713–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McCubbin, D., Leonard, K. S., Young, A. K., Maher, B. A., & Bennett, S. (2004). Application of a magnetic extraction technique to assess radionuclide-mineral association in Cumbrian shoreline sediments. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 77, 111–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mercier, G., Duchesene, J., & Carles-Gibergues, A. (2002a). A simple and fast screening test to detect soils polluted by lead. Environmental Pollution, 118, 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mercier, G., Duchesne, J., & Blackburn, D. (2002b). Removal of metals from contaminated soils by mineral processing techniques followed by chemical leaching. Water, Air, and Soil pollution, 135, 105–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rikers, R. A., Rem, P. A., Dalmijn, W. L., & Honders, A. L. (1998). Characterization of heavy metals in soil by high gradient magnetic separation. Journal of Soil Contamination, 7, 163–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ruby, M. V., Davis, A., Schoof, R., Eberle, S., & Sellstone, C. M. (1996). Estimation of lead and arsenic bioavailability using a physiologically based extraction test. Environmental Science and Technology, 30, 422–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Spiteri, C., Kalinski, V., Rosler, W., Hoffmann, V., Appel, E., & Magprox Team. (2005). Magnetic screening of a pollution hotspot in the Lausitz area, Eastern Germany: Correlation analysis between magnetic proxies and heavy metal contamination in soils. Environmental Geology, 49, 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency). (1992). Method 1311: Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure.
  26. Voutsa, D., & Samara, C. (2002). Labile and bioaccessible fractions of heavy metals in the airborne particulate matter from urban and industrial areas. Atmospheric Environment, 36, 3583–3590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Walden, J., Oldfield, F., & Smith, F. (1999). Environmental magnetism, a pratical guide. Quaternary Research Association, Technical Guide No. 6.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Subtropic Soil and Plant Nutrition, Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological HealthMinistry of Education, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Institute of Applied Biological ResourcesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations