Relationship between total concentration and dilute HCl extraction of heavy metals in sediments of harbors and coastal areas in Korea
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Total concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in surface sediments were determined to investigate the regional trends of heavy metal contamination in 11 coastal areas in Korea. Enrichment factor (EF) of heavy metals was calculated by comparing the level of their regional background. The averages of EF values in study areas were 0.99 for Cr, 1.05 for Ni, 4.23 for Cu, 1.80 for Zn, 3.92 for Cd and 1.54 for Pb, respectively. Dilute HCl extractions were useful to deduce the anthropogenic sources of heavy metals and the 1 M HCl extractable fractions of each metal varied from 0.3 to 37.3% for Cr, 1.9 to 66.3% for Ni, 4.2 to 92.9% for Cu, 7.1 to 99.7% for Zn, 10.9 to 98.9% for Cd and 15.0 to 99.1% for Pb. Comparing 1 M HCl extractable fraction to total concentration, large portions of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were present as potentially bioavailable fractions from anthropogenic input and were significantly correlated with their EF values showing r > 0.68.
KeywordsHeavy metals Marine sediment Enrichment factor Dilute HCl extractions
This study was conducted by the funding of Korea Ocean Research and Development Institute Grants (PE27900, PE33300 and PE39300) through the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, South Korea.
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