Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 203–216 | Cite as

Lung function decrement with arsenic exposure to drinking groundwater along River Indus: a comparative cross-sectional study

  • Asaad Ahmed Nafees
  • Ambreen Kazi
  • Zafar Fatmi
  • Muhammad Irfan
  • Arif Ali
  • Fujio Kayama
Original Paper


This study was designed to determine the association between chronic arsenic exposure through drinking groundwater and decrement in lung function, particularly among individuals who do not have signs of arsenic lesions, among an adult population. This was a comparative cross-sectional study conducted during the months of January to March 2009. One hundred participants ≥15 years of age in each group, i.e. exposed (≥100 μg/l) and unexposed (≤10 μg/l) to arsenic, determined by testing drinking water samples (using portable kits), were compared for effects on lung function using spirometry. A structured and validated questionnaire was administered. Examination for arsenic skin lesions was also done. There was a decline in the mean adjusted FEV1 of 154.3 ml (95% CI: −324.7, 16.0; p = 0.076), in mean adjusted FVC of 221.9 ml (95% CI: −419.5, −24.3; p = 0.028), and in FEV1/FVC ratio of 2.0 (95% CI: −25.3, 29.4; p = 0.884) among participants who were exposed to arsenic compared to those unexposed. A separate model comprising a total of 160 participants, 60 exposed to arsenic concentrations ≥250 μg/l and 100 unexposed at arsenic concentrations of ≤10 μg/l, showed a decrement in mean adjusted FEV1 of 226.4 ml (95% CI: −430.4, −22.4; p = 0.030), in mean adjusted FVC of 354.8 ml (95% CI: −583.6, −126.0; p = 0.003), and in FEV1/FVC ratio of 9.9 (95% CI: −21.8, 41.6; p = 0.539) among participants who were exposed to arsenic in drinking groundwater. This study demonstrated that decrement in lung function is associated with chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking groundwater, occurring independently, and even before any manifestation, of arsenic skin lesions or respiratory symptoms. The study also demonstrated a dose-response effect of arsenic exposure and lung function decrement.


Arsenic Groundwater Lung function decrement Respiratory symptoms Pakistan 



We would like to thank Dr. Amin S. Pethani and Dr. Aysha Zahidie for helping in editing of the study questionnaire. We would also like to acknowledge the support of study participants who gave their time and effort to conduct spirometry.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asaad Ahmed Nafees
    • 1
  • Ambreen Kazi
    • 1
  • Zafar Fatmi
    • 1
  • Muhammad Irfan
    • 2
  • Arif Ali
    • 1
  • Fujio Kayama
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Community Health SciencesAga Khan UniversityKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Section of Pulmonology, Department of MedicineAga Khan UniversityKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Division of Environmental Medicine, Center for Community MedicineJichi Medical SchoolShimotsuke-shi, Tochigi-kenJapan

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