Arsenic accumulation by ferns: a field survey in southern China
- 146 Downloads
The objective of this study reported here was to characterize arsenic (As) accumulation by Pteris ferns by comparing 3 of the ferns of this genus with each other as well as with four non-Pteris ferns growing on seven sites in southern China with different As levels. A total of 112 samples, including 78 Pteris vittata, 13 P. cretica, 3 P. multifida and 18 ferns from other non-Pteris genera, with the soils in which they grew were collected for As and other elemental analyses. P. vittata was found to be the most dominant species and the most efficient As-accumulator, whereas P. multifida was the lowest As-accumulator among the Pteris ferns, with 4.54–3599, 28.7–757 and 11.2–341 mg kg–1 As recorded in the fronds of P. vittata, P. cretica and P. multifida, respectively. Arsenic concentrations in non-Pteris ferns were generally much lower than those in Pteris ferns, with 0.81–1.32, 3.59, 10.7, 6.17–24.3 mg kg–1 in the fronds of Blechumum orientale, Dicranopteris dichotoma, Pteridium aquilinum and Cyclosorus acuminatus, respectively. For P. vittata, the As bioaccumulation factor (ratio of As in fronds to that in soils) changed, whereas the As translocation factor (ratio of As in fronds to that in roots) remained unchanged among the different sites. The concentrations of Fe were very high in all of the collected fern sample, with the exception of B.␣orientale, with 207–6865, 637–3369, 375–1856, 1876, 493-6865 and 492 mg kg–1 in the fronds of P. vittata, P. cretica, P. multifida, C. acuminatus, P. aquilinum and D. dichotoma, respectively. The association between Fe accumulation and As accumulation and tolerance in these ferns indicates the unique role of Fe in As-hyperaccumulation.
KeywordsAccumulation Arsenic Hyperaccumulator Iron pH soil
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This study was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 40271099, 20477045), the Renovation Project of the Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. CXIOG-C04-02), and the National Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (Grant No. 40325003). CY Wei thanks Prof. L Shi and XC Zhang from the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences for their kind advice on fern sampling and help with fern identification.
- Andrea, L. H., Malcolm, R. S., Damien, J., Klerk, W., Bastone, E. B., Gerostamoulos, J., & Drummer, O. H. (2004). Exposure to inorganic arsenic in soil increases urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations of residents living in old mining areas. Environ Geochem Health, 26, 27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Baker, A. J. M. (1989). Terrestrial higher plants which hyperaccumulate metallic elements – a review of their distribution, ecology and phytochemistry. Biorecovery,1, 81–126.Google Scholar
- Chen, T. B., Zhang, B. C., Huang, Z. C., Liu, Y. R., Zheng, Y. M., Lei, M., Liao, X. Y., & Piao, S. J. (2005). Geographical distribution and characteristics of habitat of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. in China(in Chinese). Geogr Res, 24, 825–833.Google Scholar
- De Koe (1994). Agrostic castellana and Agrostis delicatula on heavy metal and arsenic enriched sites in NE Portugal. The Sci Total Environ, 145, 103–109.Google Scholar
- Fitz, W. J., Wenzel, W. W., Zhang, H., Nurmi, J., Stipek, K., Fischerova, Z., Schweiger, P., Kollensperger, G., Ma, L. Q., & Stingeder, G. (2003). Rhizosphere characteristics of the arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. and monitoring of phytoremoval efficiency.␣Environ Sci Technol, 37, 5008–5014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jones, Jr J. B. (1998). Plant nutrition manual. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA.Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias, A., & Pendias, H. (2001). Trace elements in soils and plants. (3rd ed.), Boca Raton: CRC PressGoogle Scholar
- Liao, X.Y., Xiao X.Y., Xiao, X.Y., Chan T.B. (2003) Effects of Ca and As addition on As, P and Ca uptake by hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. under sand culture (in Chinese). Acta Ecologica Sinica, 3, 2057–2065Google Scholar
- Liao, Z. J. (1989). The contamination and hazardousness of heavy metals in the environment (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press.Google Scholar
- Mandal, B. K., Chowdhury, T. R., Samanta, G., Basu, G. K., Chowdhury, P. P., Chanda, C. R., Lodh, D., Karan, N. K., Dhar, R. K., Tamili, D. K., Das, D., Saha, K. C., & Chakraborti, D. (1996). Arsenic in groundwater in seven districts of West Bengal, India-the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. Curr Sci, 70, 976–986.Google Scholar
- Meharg, A. A. (2003). Variation in As accumulation- hyperaccumulation in ferns and their allies. New Phytologist, 157, 25–31.Google Scholar
- Meharg, A. A., Naylor, J., & Macnair, M. R. (1994). Phosphorus nutrition of arsenate-tolerant and non-tolerant phenotypes of velvet grass. J Environ Qual, 23, 234–238.Google Scholar
- Wei, C. Y., Chen, T. B., Huang, Z. C., & Zhang, X. Q. (2002). Cretan brake—an arsenic-accumulating plant (in Chinese). Acta Ecologica Sinica, 22, 776–778.Google Scholar
- Wei, C. Y., & Chen, T. B. (2006). Arsenic accumulation by two brake ferns growing on an arsenic mine and their␣potential in phytoremediation. Chemosphere, 63, 1048–1053.Google Scholar
- Wei, C. Y., Sun, X., Wang, C., & Wang W. Y. (2006). Factors influencing arsenic accumulation by Pteris vittata: a comparative field study at two sites. Environ Pollut, 141, 488–493.Google Scholar
- Xiong, Y. (1987). Soils in China (in Chinese). Beijing: China Science Press.Google Scholar
- Yang, L. S., Peterson, P. J., Williams, W. P., Wang, W. Y., Hou, S. F., & Tan, J. A. (2002). The relationship between exposure to arsenic concentrations in drinking water and the development of skin lesions in farmers from Inner Mongolia, China. Environ Geochem Health, 24, 293–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar