Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 27, Issue 5–6, pp 475–483 | Cite as

The Impact of the Hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. Part II: A Total Diet Study

  • Alex Heikens
  • Budi Widianarko
  • Inge C. Dewi
  • Jan L. M. de Boer
  • Willem Seinen
  • Kees van Leeuwen


In Asembagus (East Java, Indonesia), surface water is contaminated with effluent from the hyperacid Ijen Crater Lake. In a previous study, we reported that food crops irrigated with this water had increased concentrations of various elements. Here, we present a total diet study for adults and 6-year-old children to determine if the mean daily intake of a broad range of elements is safe and adequate. For children, the intake of B, Mg, Mn and V is high with Hazard Quotients (HQ) of 1.1 (B), 1.4 (Mn) and 1.4 (V), respectively (no TDI is available for Mg). For Mn, the daily intake is high due to the consumption of locally produced rice. Drinking water is the main source of B, Mg and V. For adults, the intake of Mg, Mn and V is also high but HQ values are ≤0.7. For both children and adults, the intake of Ca, Zn and particularly Fe is below the RNI (Fe intake is 90% below the RNI for women). It is concluded the mean intake of elements is unbalanced and Fe deficiency is probably the most serious health problem. Toxic effects cannot be fully excluded since deficiency of essential elements such as Ca, Fe and Zn can increase the absorption and retention of various elements.

Key words

daily intake deficiency metals toxicity volcanogenic pollution 


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Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex Heikens
    • 1
  • Budi Widianarko
    • 2
  • Inge C. Dewi
    • 2
  • Jan L. M. de Boer
    • 3
  • Willem Seinen
    • 1
  • Kees van Leeuwen
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Soegijapranata Catholic University (UNIKA)Bendang DuwurIndonesia
  3. 3.National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)BilthovenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.European Commission, Joint Research InstituteIspra (VA)Italy

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