# Teacher support for collective argumentation: A framework for examining how teachers support students’ engagement in mathematical activities

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## Abstract

We propose a framework for examining how teachers may support collective argumentation in secondary mathematics classrooms, including teachers’ direct contributions to arguments, the kinds of questions teachers ask, and teachers’ other supportive actions. We illustrate our framework with examples from episodes of collective argumentation occurring across 2 days in a teacher’s classroom. Following from these examples, we discuss how the framework can be used to examine mathematical aspects of conversations in mathematics classrooms. We propose that the framework is useful for investigating and possibly enhancing how teachers support students’ reasoning and argumentation as fundamentally mathematical activities.

## Keywords

Argumentation Reasoning Questioning Teaching Discussions## Notes

### Acknowledgments

This paper is based on work supported by the University of Georgia Research Foundation under grant no. FRG772 and the National Science Foundation through the Center for Proficiency in Teaching Mathematics under grant no. 0227586. Opinions, findings, and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies. The authors would like to thank Jeremy Kilpatrick and Denise Spangler for their helpful comments on earlier versions of this manuscript.

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