Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 141–170 | Cite as

Attachment in the Classroom

Review Article


Attachment influences students’ school success. This is true of students’ attachment to their parents, as well as to their teachers. Secure attachment is associated with higher grades and standardized test scores compared to insecure attachment. Secure attachment is also associated with greater emotional regulation, social competence, and willingness to take on challenges, and with lower levels of ADHD and delinquency, each of which in turn is associated with higher achievement. These effects tend to be stronger for high-risk students. In this era of accountability, enhancing teacher–student relationships is not merely an add-on, but rather is fundamental to raising achievement. Understanding the role of attachment in the classroom will help educators be more effective, particularly with challenging students. Twelve suggestions to improve teacher–student relationships and school bonding are provided.


Attachment Achievement School bonding Teacher–student relationship 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Assessment Resource CenterUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational, School & Counseling PsychologyUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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