The increased use of pyrethroid insecticides raises concern for exposure to non-target aquatic species, such as Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid, is frequently detected in surface waters and sediments at concentrations that exceed levels that induce toxicity to several invertebrate and salmonid species. To better understand the effects of cypermethrin to salmonids following dietary exposure, juvenile Chinook salmon were dietarily exposed to a 0, 200, or 2000 ng/g cypermethrin diet for a duration of 7, 14, or 21 days and assessed for body burden residues, swimming performance, lipid content, and lipid homeostatic gene expression. The average cypermethrin concentrations in fish dietarily exposed to cypermethrin for 21 days were 155.4 and 952.1 ng cypermethrin/g lipid for the 200 and 2000 ng/g pellet treatments, respectively. Increased trends of fatty acid synthase (fasn, r2 = 0.10, p < 0.05) and ATP citrate lyase (acly, r2 = 0.21, p < 0.001) mRNA expression were found in the fish livers relative to increasing cypermethrin body burden residues, though no significant changes in the mRNA expression of farnesoid X receptor or liver X receptor were observed. Furthermore, Chinook salmon dietarily exposed to cypermethrin did not have a significantly altered burst swimming performance (Umax). These results support studies that have suggested Umax may not be a sensitive endpoint when assessing the effects of certain pesticide classes, such as pyrethroids, but that dysregulation of fasn and acly expression may alter lipid homeostasis and energy metabolism in the liver of fish dietarily exposed to cypermethrin.
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We thank the anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments which improved the manuscript.
This research was funded through the California Department of Fish and Wildlife Proposition 1 Restoration Grant Program (#P1896015).
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All experiments were performed in accordance with the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Protocol number: 17-027) approved by Southern Illinois University IACUC. No studies with human participants are included in this research project.
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Fuller, N., Magnuson, J.T., Huff Hartz, K.E. et al. Effects of dietary cypermethrin exposure on swimming performance and expression of lipid homeostatic genes in livers of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Ecotoxicology 30, 257–267 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02352-2
- Chinook salmon
- Swimming performance
- Body burden