Boric acid as reference substance for ecotoxicity tests in tropical artificial soil
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Reference substances are recommended to evaluate the quality of laboratory test species and the reliability of ecotoxicity data. Boric acid (BA) has been recommended as reference substance in some standardized tests in OECD soil, but no data are available for Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS). For this purpose, avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei, lethality tests with E. andrei and Folsomia candida, and reproduction tests with E. andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and F. candida were carried out in TAS (5% organic matter), following ISO guidelines, and compared between two laboratories. Collembolans were more sensitive than earthworms in lethality tests (LC50 = 342 and > 1000 mg kg−1, respectively). For both laboratories, the EC50 values were similar for reproduction of oligochaeta species (165 mg kg−1 for E. crypticus; 242 and 281 mg kg−1 for E. andrei), but significantly different for reproduction of F. candida (96 and 198 mg kg−1). Present results suggest that boric acid could replace the current pesticides recommended by ISO guidelines as reference substances on reproduction tests with soil invertebrates in TAS. Concerning avoidance tests, additional investigations should be performed with other substances that cause no neurotoxic effects on soil organisms.
KeywordsSoil invertebrates Soil ecotoxicology Reproduction tests Avoidance tests
The authors would like to thank the financial support of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) by the financial support (Project CNPq Universal 454842/2014-7) and Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) by doctoral fellowship. The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that greatly contributed to improving the final version of the paper.
This study was funded by Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Project CNPq Universal 454842/2014-7 for Julia Niemeyer; and Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) by a doctoral fellowship for Letícia Scopel Camargo Carniel.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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