Toxicity of two fungicides in Daphnia: is it always temperature-dependent?
- 429 Downloads
The joint effect of increasing temperature and pollution on aquatic organisms is important to understand and predict, as a combination of stressors might be more noxious when compared to their individual effects. Our goal was to determine the sensitivity of a model organism (Daphnia spp.) to contaminants at increasing temperatures, allowing prior acclimation of the organisms to the different temperatures. Prior to exposure, two Daphnia genotypes (Daphnia longispina species complex) were acclimated to three temperatures (17, 20, and 23 °C). Afterwards, a crossed design was established using different exposure temperatures and a range of concentrations of two common fungicides (tebuconazole and copper). Daphnia life history parameters were analysed in each temperature × toxicant combination for 21 days. Temperature was the most influencing factor: Daphnia reproduced later and had lower fecundity at 17 °C than at 20 and 23 °C. Both copper and tebuconazole also significantly reduced the fecundity and survival of Daphnia at environmentally-relevant concentrations. Temperature-dependence was found for both toxicants, but the response pattern was endpoint- and genotype-specific. The combination of contaminant and high temperature often had severe effects on survival. However, unlike some literature on the subject, our results do not support the theory that increasing temperatures consistently foment increasing reproductive toxicity. The absence of a clear temperature-dependent toxicity pattern may result from the previous acclimation to the temperature regime. However, a proper framework is lacking to compare such studies and to avoid misleading conclusions for climate change scenarios.
KeywordsCopper sulphate Tebuconazole Temperature rise Daphnia Acclimation
Authors thank Mark Phillipo for linguistic help.
This work was supported by European funds through COMPETE2020 (European Regional Development Fund) and by national funds through the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT I.P.) within the strategic programmes UID/AMB/50017/2013 (CESAM) and UID/BIA/04050/2013 (CBMA), as well as by the research project VITAQUA (PTDC/AAC-AMB/112438/2009). Ana P. Cuco and Nelson Abrantes are individual recipients of, respectively, a PhD Grant (SFRH/BD/81661/2011) and a researcher contract (IF/01198/2014) from FCT.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This study did not involve any research conducted on human participants. No specific permissions were necessary, because the existing legislation on the welfare of experimental animals is not applicable and the study did not involve the collection of endangered or protected species.
- Bates B, Kundzewicz Z, Wu S, Palutikof J (2008) Climate change and water: technical paper of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. IPCC Secretariat, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Brucet S, Boix D, Quintana XD, Jensen E, Nathansen LW, Trochine C, Meerhoff M, Gascón S, Jeppesen E (2010) Factors influencing zooplankton size structure at contrasting temperatures in coastal shallow lakes: implications for effects of climate change. Limnol Oceanogr 55:1697–1711. doi: 10.4319/lo.2010.55.4.1697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Engert A, Chakrabarti S, Saul N, Bittner M, Menzel R, Steinberg CEW (2013) Interaction of temperature and an environmental stressor: Moina macrocopa responds with increased body size, increased lifespan, and increased offspring numbers slightly above its temperature optimum. Chemosphere 90:2136–2141. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.10.099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fischer JM, Olson MH, Williamson CE, Everhart JC, Hogan PJ, Mack JA, Rose KC, Saros JE, Stone JR, Vinebrooke RD (2011) Implications of climate change for Daphnia in alpine lakes: predictions from long-term dynamics, spatial distribution, and a short-term experiment. Hydrobiologia 676:263–277. doi: 10.1007/s10750-011-0888-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Holmstrup M, Bindesbøl A-M, Oostingh GJ, Duschl A, Scheil V, Köhler H-R, Loureiro S, Soares AMVM, Ferreira ALG, Kienle C, Gerhardt A, Laskowski R, Kramarz PE, Bayley M, Svendsen C, Spurgeon DJ (2010) Interactions between effects of environmental chemicals and natural stressors: a review. Sci Total Environ 408:3746–3762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2014a) Climate change 2014: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Part A: global and sectoral aspects. contribution of working group II to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- IPCC (2014b) Climate change 2014: synthesis report. contribution of working groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri L.A. Meyer (eds.) IPCC, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Kegley SE, Hill BR, Orme S, Choi, AH, (2014). PAN Pesticide Database. Pestic. Action Netw., North America Oakland URL http://www.pesticideinfo.org
- Kim J, Park J, Kim PG, Lee C, Choi K, Choi K (2010) Implication of global environmental changes on chemical toxicity-effect of water temperature, pH, and ultraviolet B irradiation on acute toxicity of several pharmaceuticals in Daphnia magna. Ecotoxicology 19:662–669. doi: 10.1007/s10646-009-0440-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lampert W (2006) Daphnia: model herbivore, predator and prey. Polish J Ecol 54:607–620Google Scholar
- McCallum H (1999) Rate of increase of a population. In: Population parameters: estimation for ecological models. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford. doi: 10.1002/9780470757468.ch5
- Moreira L, (2013). Exportação de nutrientes e pesticidas em áreas vitícolas. Master Thesis, University of AveiroGoogle Scholar
- Neves M, Castro BB, Vidal T, Vieira R, Marques JC, Coutinho JAP, Gonçalves F, Gonçalves AMM (2015) Biochemical and populational responses of an aquatic bioindicator species, Daphnia longispina, to a commercial formulation of a herbicide (Primextra® Gold TZ) and its active ingredient (S-metolachlor). Ecol. Indic. 53:220–230. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2015.01.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- OECD 2012. Test No. 211: Daphnia magna reproduction test, OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals, section 2. OECD. doi: 10.1787/9789264185203-en
- Paul RJ, Mertenskötter A, Pinkhaus O, Pirow R, Gigengack U, Buchen I, Koch M, Horn W, Zeis B (2012) Seasonal and interannual changes in water temperature affect the genetic structure of a Daphnia assemblage (D. longispina complex) through genotype-specific thermal tolerances. Limnol Oceanogr 57:619–633. doi: 10.4319/lo.2012.57.2.0619 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- R Core Team (2014). R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna http://www.r-project.org/
- Scherer C, Seeland A, Oehlmann J, Müller R (2013) Interactive effects of xenobiotic, abiotic and biotic stressors on Daphnia pulex–results from a multiple stressor experiment with a fractional multifactorial design. Aquat Toxicol 138–139:105–115. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Seeland A, Albrand J, Oehlmann J, Müller R (2013) Life stage-specific effects of the fungicide pyrimethanil and temperature on the snail Physella acuta (Draparnaud, 1805) disclose the pitfalls for the aquatic risk assessment under global climate change. Environ Pollut 174:1–9. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2012.10.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Van Doorslaer W, Vanoverbeke J, Duvivier C, Rousseaux S, Jansen M, Jansen B, Feuchtmayr H, Atkinson D, Moss B, Stoks R, De Meester L (2009b) Local adaptation to higher temperatures reduces immigration success of genotypes from a warmer region in the water flea Daphnia. Glob Chang Biol 15:3046–3055. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01980.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar