Individual and combined toxic effects of herbicide atrazine and three insecticides on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida
- 556 Downloads
In the present study, we evaluated the individual and combined toxic effects of herbicide atrazine and three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) on the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Results from 48-h filter paper test indicated that imidacloprid had the highest toxicity to E. fetida with an LC50 of 0.05 (0.041–0.058) μg a.i. cm−2, followed by lambda-cyhalothrin and atrazine with LC50 values ranging from 4.89 (3.52–6.38) to 4.93 (3.76–6.35) μg a.i. cm−2, while chlorpyrifos had the least toxicity to the worms with an LC50 of 31.18 (16.22–52.85) μg a.i. cm−2. Results from 14-days soil toxicity test showed a different pattern of toxicity except that imidacloprid was the most toxic even under the soil toxicity bioassay system. The acute toxicity of atrazine was significantly higher than that of chlorpyrifos. In contrast, lambda-cyhalothrin was the least toxic to the animals under the soil toxicity bioassay system. The binary mixture of atrazine–lambda-cyhalothrin and ternary mixture of atrazine–chlorpyrifos–lambda-cyhalothrin displayed a significant synergistic effect on the earthworms under the soil toxicity bioassay. Our findings would help regulatory authorities understand the complexity of effects from pesticide mixtures on non-target organisms and provide useful information of the interaction of various pesticide classes detected in natural environment.
KeywordsSoil invertebrate Ecotoxicology Pesticide Combined toxicity Acute toxicity
The study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31401767 and 31572028), the Application Research Project of the Public Interest in Zhejiang Province (Grant No. 2015C32047), and Zhejiang Province Major Bidding Project (Grant No. 2014C02002). The authors acknowledge the help provided by Huixian Rao and Biqi Xu in the laboratorial experiments.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Any studies in this paper using earthworms were conducted in accordance with national and institutional guidelines for the protection of human subjects and animal welfare.
- Chi H (1997) Computer program for the probit analysis. National Chung Hsing University, TaichungGoogle Scholar
- Edwards CA, Bohlen PJ (1992) The effects of toxic chemicals on earthworms. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 125:23–99Google Scholar
- EEC (1985) EEC Directive 79/831 Annex V Part C: methods for the determination of ecotoxicity Level I C (L1) 4: toxicity for earthwormsGoogle Scholar
- Heimbach F (1998) Comparison of the sensitivities of an earthworm (Eisenia foetida) reproduction test and a standardised field test on grassland. In: Sheppard S, Bembridge J, Holmstrup M, Posthuma L (eds) Advances in earthworm ecotoxicology. SETAC Press, Pensacola, pp 235–245Google Scholar
- ISO (1993) Soil quality-effects of pollutants on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) Part 1: determination of acute toxicity using artificial soil substrate, Geneva, Switzerland ISO: 11268-1Google Scholar
- Liang JD, Zhou QX (2003) Single and binary-combined toxicity of methamidophos, acetochlor and copper acting on earthworm Eisenia foelide. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 71:1158–1166Google Scholar
- Marking LL (1985) Toxicity of chemical mixtures. In: Rand G, Petroceli S (eds) Fundamentals of aquatic toxicology. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, Washington, pp 164–176Google Scholar
- Narahashi T (2000) Neuroreceptors and ion channels as the basis for drug action: past present and future. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 294:1–26Google Scholar
- Pizl V (1988) Internations between earthworms and toxicity of some herbicides to earthworms in laboratory tests. Pedobiologia 32:227–232Google Scholar
- Sánchez-Hernández JC (2006) Earthworm biomarkers in ecological risk assessment. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 188:85–126Google Scholar
- Scott-Fordsmand JJ, Weeks JM (2000) Biomarkers in earthworms. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 165:117–159Google Scholar
- Wahanthaswamy MV, Patil BV (2004) Toxicity of pesticides to earthworm, Eudrillus eugeniae (Kinberg). Karnataka J Agric Sci 17:112–114Google Scholar