Recently, residual organotin compounds have generally been recognised as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants. However, the effects of these contaminants on the glutathione (GSH)-antioxidant system of fishes have not been adequately studied. In the current study, the chronic effects of tributyltin (TBT) found within antifouling paints for ships, on the GSH antioxidant system and related gene expression in the liver of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were investigated. Fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of TBT (75 ng/L, 0.75 and 7.5 μg/L) for 15, 30 and 60 days. GSH levels and GSH-related enzymes activities, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), were quantified in the fish liver. The levels of malondialdehyde were also measured as a marker of oxidative damage. In addition, the expression levels of gstp1, gr and gpx1 in common carp chronically exposed to TBT were determined. The results of the current study indicate that chronic exposure of TBT results in reactive oxygen species stress in the liver of common carp, and mRNA expression levels are more sensitive than related enzyme levels. In short, the measured GSH-related indices could potentially be used as molecular indicators for monitoring organotin compounds in the aquatic environment.
Fish Organotin compounds Antioxidant defense system Glutathione
Reactive oxygen species
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
Principal component analysis
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This study was supported by Special Scientific Research Funds for Central Non-profit Institutes, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (2014A02YQ01), Technology Foundation for Selected Overseas Chinese Scholar of MOHRSS, and the CENAKVA CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0024, the Project LO1205 with a financial support from the MEYS of the CR under the NPU I program, the Project P503/11/1130 of the Grant agency of Czech Republic.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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1.Key Laboratory of Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation (Ministry of Agriculture), Key Field Station for Fishery Resource and Environment in Upper-Middle Reaches of Yangtze River (Ministry of Agriculture), Yangtze River Fisheries Research InstituteChinese Academy of Fishery SciencesWuhanChina
2.Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Research Institute of Fish Culture and HydrobiologyUniversity of South Bohemia in Ceske BudejoviceVodňanyCzech Republic