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Ecotoxicology

, Volume 23, Issue 7, pp 1292–1304 | Cite as

Pb-inhibited mitotic activity in onion roots involves DNA damage and disruption of oxidative metabolism

  • Gurpreet Kaur
  • Harminder Pal Singh
  • Daizy Rani Batish
  • Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Article

Abstract

Plant responses to abiotic stress significantly affect the development of cells, tissues and organs. However, no studies correlating Pb-induced mitotic inhibition and DNA damage and the alterations in redox homeostasis during root division per se were found in the literature. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of Pb on mitotic activity and the associated changes in the oxidative metabolism in onion roots. The cytotoxic effect of Pb on cell division was assessed in the root meristems of Allium cepa (onion). The mitotic index (MI) was calculated and chromosomal abnormalities were sought. Pb-treatment induced a dose-dependent decrease in MI in the onion root tips and caused mitotic abnormalities such as distorted metaphase, fragments, sticky chromosomes, laggards, vagrant chromosomes and bridges. Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis was also performed to evaluate Pb induced genotoxicity. It was accompanied by altered oxidative metabolism in the onion root tips suggesting the interference of Pb with the redox homeostasis during cell division. There was a higher accumulation of malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydrogen peroxide, and a significant increase in the activities of superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases and glutathione reductases in Pb-treated onion roots, whereas catalases activity exhibited a decreasing pattern upon Pb exposure. The study concludes that Pb-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the onion roots is mediated through ROS and is also tightly linked to the cell cycle. The exposure to higher concentrations arrested cell cycle leading to cell death, whereas different repair responses are generated at lower concentrations, thereby allowing the cell to complete the cell cycle.

Keywords

Pb toxicity Chromosomal abnormalities Mitotic index (MI) Genotoxicity DNA damage Redox homeostasis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Gurpreet Kaur is thankful to University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India, for financial assistance in the form of Post-doctoral Fellowship.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gurpreet Kaur
    • 1
  • Harminder Pal Singh
    • 1
  • Daizy Rani Batish
    • 2
  • Ravinder Kumar Kohli
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environment StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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