Unraveling the concentration-dependent metabolic response of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 to nicotine stress by 1H NMR-based metabolomics
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Nicotine can cause oxidative damage to organisms; however, some bacteria, for example Pseudomonas sp. HF-1, are resistant to such oxidative stress. In the present study, we analyzed the concentration-dependent metabolic response of Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 to nicotine stress using 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. We found that the dominant metabolites in Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 were eight aliphatic organic acids, six amino acids, three sugars and 11 nucleotides. After 18 h of cultivation, 1 g/L nicotine caused significant elevation of sugar (glucose, trehalose and maltose), succinate and nucleic acid metabolites (cytidine, 5′-CMP, guanine 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate and adenosine 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate), but decrease of glutamate, putrescine, pyrimidine, 2-propanol, diethyl ether and acetamide levels. Similar metabolomic changes were induced by 2 g/L nicotine, except that no significant change in trehalose, 5′-UMP levels and diethyl ether were found. However, 3 g/L nicotine led to a significant elevation in the two sugars (trehalose and maltose) levels and decrease in the levels of glutamate, putrescine, pyrimidine and 2-propanol. Our findings indicated that nicotine resulted in the enhanced nucleotide biosynthesis, decreased glucose catabolism, elevated succinate accumulation, severe disturbance in osmoregulation and complex antioxidant strategy. And a further increase of nicotine level was a critical threshold value that triggered the change of metabolic flow in Pseudomonas sp. HF-1. These findings revealed the comprehensive insights into the metabolic response of nicotine-degrading bacteria to nicotine-induced oxidative toxicity.
KeywordsNicotine Oxidative stress Metabolomics NMR spectroscopy
We thank supports from National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31100032, 31170115), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. Y3090046), University National Oceanographic Public Welfare Project (201205029), K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo and Academic Discipline Project of Ningbo University (xkl11089). We also acknowledge that all the NMR detection was performed at the Analysis and Test Laboratory, Wenzhou Medical College, in the form of paid service.
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