Genotoxicity in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) from a PAH-contaminated Superfund site on the Elizabeth River, Virginia
- 329 Downloads
The Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund site (AWI) on the Elizabeth River in Portsmouth, VA is heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a wood treatment facility. Atlantic killifish, or mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), at this Superfund site are exposed to very high concentrations of several carcinogens. In this study, we measured PAH concentrations in both fish tissues and sediments. Concurrently, we assessed different aspects of genotoxicity in the killifish exposed in situ. Both sediment and tissue PAH levels were significantly higher in AWI samples, relative to a reference site, but the chemistry profile was different between sediments and tissues. Killifish at AWI exhibited higher levels of DNA damage compared to reference fish, as measured via the flow cytometric method (FCM), and the damage was consistent with sediment PAH concentrations. Covalent binding of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) metabolites to DNA, as measured via LC–MS/MS adduct detection methods, were also elevated and could be partially responsible for the DNA damage. Using similar LC–MS/MS methods, we found no evidence that oxidative DNA adducts had a role in observed genotoxicity.
KeywordsFundulus heteroclitus DNA adduct Chromosomal damage Elizabeth River Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund site Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Biomarker
We thank Drs. Lauren Wills and Bryan Clark, and Lindsey Van Tiem for assistance in sample collection and processing, and Shannon Kelly, Sara Eagle, Dr. Ben Colman for technical support for sediment and tissue analysis. Standards for BPDE adduct analysis were provided by Dr. Natalia Tretyakova of University of Minnesota. This research was funded by Duke Superfund Research Program (P42 ES10356), Duke Integrated Toxicology and Environmental Health Program (NIEHS, T32ES07031), and UNC Superfund Research Program (P42 ES05948).
- Bickham JW (1990) Flow cytometry as a technique to monitor the effects of environmental genotoxins on wildlife populations. In: Sandhu SS, Lower WR, de Serres FJ, Suk WA, Tice RR (eds) In situ evaluations of biological hazards of environmental pollutants. Plenum, New York, pp 81–93Google Scholar
- Dean WE (1974) Determination of carbonate and organic matter in calcareous sediments and sedimentary rocks by loss on ignition: comparison with other methods. J Sed Petrol 44:242–248Google Scholar
- Goanvec C, Theron M, Lacoue-Labarthe T, Poirier E, Guyomarch J, Le-Floch S, Laroche J, Nonnotte L, Nonnotte G (2008) Flow cytometry for the evaluation of chromosomal damage in turbot Psetta maxima (L.) exposed to the dissolved fraction of heavy fuel oil in sea water: a comparison with classical biomarkers. J Fish Biol 73:395–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hartwell SI, Hameedi J (2007) Magnitude and extent of contaminated sediment and toxicity in Chesapeake Bay. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 47, pp i–xix, 1–215Google Scholar
- Ryu DY, Levi PE, Fernandez-Salguero P, Gonzalez FJ, Hodgson E (1996) Piperonyl butoxide and acenaphthylene induce cytochrome P450 1A2 and 1B1 mRNA in aromatic hydrocarbon-responsive receptor knock-out mouse liver. Mol Pharmacol 50:443–446Google Scholar
- USEPA (2007) Record of decision—Atlantic Wood Industries, Inc. Superfund site. United States Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2010) Development of a relative potency factor (RPF) approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures (External Review Draft), EPA/635/R-08/012A. United States Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- van der Oost R, van Schooten F-J, Ariese F, Heida H, Satumalay K, Vermeulen NPE (1994b) Bioaccumulation, biotransformation and DNA binding of PAHs in feral eel (Anguilla anguilla) exposed to polluted sediments: a field study. Environ Toxicol Chem 13:859–870Google Scholar
- Vindelov LL, Christiansen IJ (1994) Detergent and proteolytic enzyme-based techniques for nuclear isolation and DNA content analysis. In: Darzynkiewicz Z, Robinson JP, Crissman HA (eds) Flow cytometry: methods in cell biology, Part A, 2nd edn. Academic, New York, pp 219–229Google Scholar
- Vogelbein WK, Fournie JW, Van Veld PA, Huggett RJ (1990) Hepatic neoplasms in the mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus from a creosote-contaminated site. Cancer Res 50:5978–5986Google Scholar
- Vogelbein WK, Unger M, Gauthier D (2008) The Elizabeth River Monitoring Program 2006–2007: association between mummichog liver histopathology and sediment chemical contamination. The Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, RichmondGoogle Scholar