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Ecotoxicology

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 945–952 | Cite as

Acute, subacute, and subchronic exposure to 2A-DNT (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene) in the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)

  • Michael J. QuinnJr.
  • Craig A. McFarland
  • Emily M. LaFiandra
  • Matthew A. Bazar
  • Mark S. Johnson
Article

Abstract

2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) is a metabolite of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) which is present in the soil at numerous U.S. Army installations as the result of TNT manufacture or training activities. Although many avian species are known to inhabit areas where 2A-DNT has been found in the environment, no published studies of the effects of 2A-DNT exposure in birds are available. In this study, we conducted an evaluation of the oral toxicity of 2A-DNT in a representative ground foraging species of management concern, the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Subacute (14 days) and subchronic (60 days) oral gavage exposure studies were conducted following determination of the median acute lethal dose (LD50 = 1167 mg/kg). In the subacute study, survival occurred at 50 mg/kg/day. This helped to determine dose groups for the subchronic study: 0, 0.5, 3, 14, and 30 mg 2A-DNT/kg body weight-d in corn oil. The lowest observed adverse effects level (LOAEL) was determined to be 14 mg/kg/day based on mortality, and the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) was determined to be 3 mg/kg/day based on lack of effects at this exposure level.

Keywords

2A-DNT 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene Northern bobwhite Explosive TNT 

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Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. QuinnJr.
    • 1
  • Craig A. McFarland
    • 1
  • Emily M. LaFiandra
    • 1
  • Matthew A. Bazar
    • 1
  • Mark S. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive MedicineAberdeenUSA

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