Effect of temperature on phytoextraction of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by hybrid willows
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The removal of hexavalent and trivalent chromium from hydroponic solution by plants to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz × alba L.) were exposed to a nutrient solution spiked with potassium chromate (K2CrO4) or chromium chloride (CrCl3) for 4 days. Ten different temperatures were tested ranging from 11 to 32°C. Total Cr in solutions and in plant materials were all analyzed quantitatively. The results revealed that large amounts of the applied Cr were removed from the hydroponic solution in the presence of the plants. Significantly faster removal of Cr(III) than Cr(VI) was achieved by hybrid willows from the hydroponic solutions at all temperatures (P < 0.01). The removal rates of both chemical forms of Cr by plants increased linearly with the increase of temperatures. The highest removal rate of Cr(VI) was found at 32°C with a value of 1.99 μg Cr/g day, whereas the highest value of Cr(III) was 3.55 μg Cr/g day at the same temperature. Roots were the main sink for Cr accumulation in plants at all temperatures. Translocation of both chemical forms of Cr from roots to lower stems was only found at temperatures ≥24°C. The temperature coefficient values (Q 10) were 2.41 and 1.42 for Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively, indicating that the removal of Cr(VI) by hybrid willows was much more susceptible to changes in temperature than that of Cr(III). This information suggests that changes in temperature have a substantial influence on the uptake and accumulation of both chemical forms of Cr by plants.
KeywordsAccumulation Chromium Phytoremediation Removal Temperature Willows
This work was financially supported by The National Science Foundation of China (NSFC: 30770389).
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