Towards the conservation of a critically endangered species, Aphanius farsicus: embryogenesis and development

Abstract

Human-induced disturbance or anthropogenic activities, natural disturbance and also limited distribution, have forced Aphanius farsicus populations to the edge of extinction, during the past few years. As knowledge of fish ontogeny is fundamental for accurate stock assessment, and reproductive potential determination, thus for future conservation and management of the critically endangered species, we describe the first detailed normal embryonic development of this cyprinodontid fish from fertilization to post-hatching. Aphanius farsicus spontaneously spawned at 24°C. The newly-laid eggs were hyaline and spherical in shape (1.40 ± 0.02 mm, n = 11), sticky and full of egg yolk (telolecithal/macrolecithal) with oil droplets. We documented the main developmental stages at 24°C to zygote (0 h), cleavage (2 h), blastula (2 h), gastrula (17 h), segmentation, (34 h), pharyngula (100 h) and hatching (162 h).

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Acknowledgements

Especial thanks to B.W. Coad (Canadian Museum of Nature) for checking the English of an earlier draft of the MS. The research work was funded by Shiraz University and was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Biology Department (SU- 9431436).

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Correspondence to Hamid Reza Esmaeili.

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Vahed, N.S., Esmaeili, H.R., Masoudi, M. et al. Towards the conservation of a critically endangered species, Aphanius farsicus: embryogenesis and development. Environ Biol Fish 101, 193–202 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-017-0691-1

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Keywords

  • Cyprinodontid fishes
  • Embryogenesis
  • Staging
  • Organogenesis