Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 99, Issue 4, pp 433–438 | Cite as

The density dependent interspecific competition between nonnative salmonids, rainbow trout and brown trout

  • Koh Hasegawa


Interspecific interactions play a key role in determining species assemblages when nonnative species are introduced. In the Chitose River system, Hokkaido, northern Japan, nonnative brown trout Salmo trutta may have replaced nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss due to interspecific competition. The outcome of this competition is predicted to be influenced by the density of both species. Then, I conducted an enclosure experiment to test whether density-dependent interspecific competition between YOY (young-of-the-year) of these species may have explained the species replacement. Rainbow trout decreased their stomach contents in the high density treatment sympatry with brown trout, and growth rate of rainbow trout decreased in the high density treatments both allopatry and sympatry with brown trout. Stomach contents and growth of brown trout were not affected by competitor species (rainbow trout) or total fish density. These results imply that brown trout are competitively superior to rainbow trout. Therefore, there is the potential for the replacement of rainbow trout by brown trout through interspecific competition.


Density dependence Foraging Interference competition SGR Stream 



I thank Hirotaka Katahira, Takeaki Oiso, Yudai Hiraka, Nobuo Ishiyama, Kohei Shimomura, and Kengo Suzuki for helping with the enclosure experiment and Toshiaki Yamamoto for his valuable comments on an early draft of this manuscript. This study respected the bylaws of Fisheries Research Agency and Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute for animal welfare. This study was financially supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI (Grant Number 24780196).


  1. Armstrong JD, Kemp PS, Kennedy GJA, Ladle M, Milner NJ (2003) Habitat requirements of Atlantic salmon and brown trout in rivers and streams. Fish Res 62:143–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanchet S, Loot G, Grenouillet G, Brosse S (2007) Competitive interactions between native and exotic salmonids: a combined field and laboratory demonstration. Ecol Freshw Fish 16:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dunson WA, Travis J (1991) The role of abiotic factors in community organization. Am Nat 138:1067–1091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Elliott JM (1994) Quantitative ecology and the brown trout. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  5. Fausch KD (1998) Interspecific competition and juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): on testing effects and evaluating the evidence across scales. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55(suppl 1):218–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fausch KD (2007) Introduction, establishment and effects of non-native salmonids: considering the risk of rainbow trout invasion in the United Kingdom. J Fish Biol 71(suppl D): 1–32Google Scholar
  7. Gatz AJ, Sale MJ, Loar JM (1987) Habitat shifts in rainbow trout: competitive influences of brown trout. Oecologia 74: 7–19Google Scholar
  8. Grant JWA, Imre I (2005) Patterns of density-dependent growth in juvenile stream-dwelling salmonids. J Fish Biol 67(suppl B): 100–110.Google Scholar
  9. Gurevitch J, Padilla DK (2004) Are invasive species a major cause of extinctions? Trends Ecol Evol 19:470–474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hasegawa K, Ishiyama N, Kawai H (2014a) Replacement of nonnative rainbow trout by nonnative brown trout in the Chitose River system, Hokkaido, Northern Japan. Aquat Invasions 9:221–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hasegawa K, Maekawa K (2006) Effect of introduced salmonids on two native stream-dwelling salmonids through interspecific competition. J Fish Biol 68:1123–1132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hasegawa K, Morita K, Ohkuma K, Ohnuki T, Okamoto Y (2014b) Effects of hatchery chum salmon fry on density-dependent intra- and interspecific competition between wild chum and masu salmon fry. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 71:1475–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hasegawa K, Yamamoto T, Murakami M, Maekawa K (2004) Comparison of competitive ability between native and introduced salmonids: evidence from pairwise contests. Ichthyol Res 51:191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hayes JW (1987) Competition for spawning space between brown (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (S. gairdneri) in a lake inlet tributary, New Zealand. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hokanson KEF, Kleiner CF, Thorslund TW (1977) Effects of constant temperatures and diel temperature fluctuations on specific growth and mortality rates and yield of juvenile rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. J Fish Res Board Can 34:639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Imre I, Grant JWA, Cunjak RA (2005) Density-dependent growth of young-of-the-year Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in catamaran Brook, new Brunswick. J Anim Ecol 74:508–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jenkins TM (1969) Social structure, position choice and micro-distribution of two trout species (Salmo trutta and Salmo gairdneri) resident in mountain streams. Anim Behav Monogr 2:55–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kawai H, Ishiyama N, Hasegawa K, Nakamura F (2013) The relationship between the snowmelt flood and the establishment of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) in streams of the Chitose River, Hokkaido, Northern Japan. Ecol Freshw Fish 22:645–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kocik JF, Taylor WW (1995) Effect of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on age-0 and age-1 brown trout (Salmo trutta) survival and growth in a sympatric nursery stream. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:105–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Korsu K, Huusko A, Muotka T (2008) Ecology of alien species with special reference to stream salmonids. Boreal Env Res 13:43–52Google Scholar
  21. Kuebbing SE, Nunez MA (2015) Negative, neutral, and positive interactions among nonnative plants: patterns, processes, and management implications. Glob Chang Biol 21:926–934CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lowe S, Browne M, Boudjelas S, De Poorter M (2000) 100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species. Invasive Species Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union, AucklandGoogle Scholar
  23. Lobón-Cervia J (2007) Density-dependent growth in stream-living brown trout Salmo trutta L. Funct Ecol 21:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Morita K, Tsuboi J, Matsuda H (2004) The impact of exotic trout on native charr in a Japanese stream. J Appl Ecol 41:962–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moulton MP, Pimm SL (1983) The introduced Hawaiian avifauna: biogeographic evidence for competition. Am Nat 121:669–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rahel FJ, Bierwagen B, Taniguchi Y (2008) Managing aquatic species of conservation concern in the face of climate change and invasive species. Conserv Biol 22:551–561CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Scott D, Irvine JR (2000) Competitive exclusion of brown trout Salmo trutta L., by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum, in lake tributaries, New Zealand. Fish Manag Ecol 7:225–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shea K, Chesson P (2002) Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends Ecol Evol 17:170–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Takami T, Aoyama T (1999) Distributions of rainbow and brown trouts in Hokkaido, Northern Japan. Wildl Conserv Jpn 4:41–48(in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  30. Tatara CP, Berejikian BA (2012) Mechanisms influencing competition between hatchery and wild juvenile anadromous Pacific salmonids in fresh water and their relative competitive abilities. Environ Biol Fish 94(suppl 1):7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Urawa S (1989) Seasonal occurrence of Microsporidium takedai (microsporida) infection in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, from the Chitose River. Physiol Ecol Jpn 1:587–598Google Scholar
  32. Vøllestad LA, Quinn TP (2003) Trade-off between growth rate and aggression in juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. Anim Behav 66:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Weber ED, Fausch KD (2003) Interactions between hatchery and wild salmonids in streams: differences in biology and evidence for competition. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:1018–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yamamoto S, Nakamura H, Koga K (2008) Interaction between hatchery and wild juvenile white-spotted charr Salvelinus leucomaenis in a stream enclosure experiment. J Fish Biol 73:861–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yamamoto T, Reinhardt UG (2003) Dominance and predator avoidance in domesticated and wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou. Fish Sci 69:88–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hokkaido National Fisheries Research Institute, Fisheries Research AgencySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations