Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 97, Issue 3, pp 285–296 | Cite as

Osmoregulation and growth in offspring of wild Atlantic salmon at different temperatures

  • Sigurd O. Handeland
  • Albert K. Imsland
  • Lars O. E. Ebbesson
  • Tom O. Nilsen
  • Camilla D. Hosfeld
  • Hans Ch. Teien
  • Sigurd O. Stefansson
Article

Abstract

In order to investigate how changes in gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) α1a, α1b subunits, Na+, K+, 2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) and the apical cyctic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR-I) transcripts in wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts are affected by temperature during spring Atlantic salmon parr (initial mean length 12.8 cm, s.d. = 0.6, mean mass 22.1 g, s.d. = 3.2) originating from the Vosso river (western Norway) were reared under three temperature regimes (5.1, 8.1 and 10.8 °C) from March to May. The temperatures reflect the natural temperature range in the study river during late spring. Findings from the present study indicate that smolt development differs within same strains held at different temperatures. Hence an absolute lower temperature limit for smolt development in wild salmon may be difficult to define. Overall present findings indicate that the smolt window will be narrower in warmer water. A temperature controlled smolt window may signify serious implications for smolt survival in wild (i.e., if migrants are delayed by obstacles or if hatchery produced smolts are released to late).

Keywords

Atlantic Salmon Wild strain Gill Na+ K+-ATPase subunits Na+ K+ 2Cl cotransporter Apical cyctic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the staff at ILAB for their assistance during this experiment. This study was financed by grant from the Norwegian Research Council. The experiment described has been approved by the local responsible laboratory animal science specialist under the surveillance of the Norwegian Animal Research Authority (NARA). The experiment was conducted in accordance with the laws and regulations controlling experiments in live animals on Norway, i.e. the Animal Protection Act of 20 December 1974, No. 73, chapter VI sections 20–22 and the Animal Protection Ordinance concerning Biological Experiments in Animals of 15 January 1996.

References

  1. Aas-Hansen Ø, Johnsen HK, Vijayan MM, Jørgensen EH (2003) Development of seawater tolerance and concurrent hormonal changes in fed and fasted Arctic charr at two temperature regimes. Aquaculture 222:135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ágústsson T, Sundell K, Sakamoto T, Ando M, Björnsson BT (2003) Pituitary gene expression of somatolactin, prolactin, and growth hormone during Atlantic salmon parr-smolt transformation. Aquaculture 222:229–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austreng E, Storebakken T, Åsgård T (1987) Growth rate estimates for cultured Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Aquaculture 60:157–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Björnsson BT (1997) The biology of salmon growth hormone: from daylight to dominance. Fish Physiol Biochem 17:9–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bystriansky JS, Richards JG, Schulte PM, Ballantyne JS (2006) Reciprocal expression of gill Na+/K+-ATPase α -subunit isoforms α -1a and α -1b during seawater acclimation of three salmonid fishes that vary in their salinity tolerance. J Exp Biol 209:1848–1858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chomczynski P (1993) A reagent for the single‐step simultaneous isolaon of RNA, DNA and proteins from cell and tissue samples. Bio Tech 15:532‐537 Google Scholar
  7. Diesen Hosfeld C, Hammer J, Handeland SO, Fivelstad S, Stefansson SO (2009) Effects of fish density on growth and smoltification in intensive production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 294:236–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Evans DH, Piermarini PM, Choe KP (2005) The multifunctional fish gill: dominant site of gas exchange, osmoregulation, acid–base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous waste. Physiol Rev 85:97–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Handeland SO, Wilkinsson E, Sveinsbø B, McCormick SD, Stefansson SO (2004) Temperature influence the development and loss of seawater tolerance in two fast-growing strains of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture 233:513–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Harrenstien LA, Tornquist SJ, Miller-Morgan TJ, Fodness BG, Clifford KE (2005) Evaluation of a point-of-care blood analyzer and determination of reference ranges for blood parameters in rockfish. J Am Vet Med Assoc 226:255–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hvidsten NA, Jensen AJ, Vivås H, Bakke Ø, Heggberget TG (1995) Downstream migration of Atlantic salmon smolts in relation to water flow, water temperature, moon phase and social interactions. Nor J Freshw Res 70:38–48Google Scholar
  12. Jonsson B, Ruud-Hansen J (1984) Water temperature as the primary influence on timing of seaward migrations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:593–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. McCormick SD (1993) Methods for nonlethal gill biopsy and measurements of Na+, K+ -ATPase activity. Can J Fish Aqua Sci 50:656–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McCormick SD, Saunders RL (1987) Preparatory physiological adaptations for marine life of salmonids: osmoregulation, growth, and metabolism. Am Fish Soc Symp 1:211–229Google Scholar
  15. McCormick SD, Saunders RL, Henderson EB, Harmon PR (1987) Photoperiod control of parr-smolt transformation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): changes in salinity tolerance, gill Na+, K+ -ATPase activity and plasma thyroid hormones. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 44:1462–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McCormick SD, Cunjak RA, Dempson B, O’Dea MF, Carey JB (1999) Temperature-related loss of smolt characteristics in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the wild. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:1649–1658Google Scholar
  17. McCormick SD, Moriyama S, Björnsson BT (2000) Low temperature limits photoperiod control of smolting in Atlantic salmon through endocrine mechanisms. Am J Physiol 78:R1352–R1361Google Scholar
  18. McCormick SD, Shrimpton JM, Moriyama S, Björnsson BT (2002) Effects of an advanced temperature cycle on smolt development and endocrinology indicate that temperature is not a zeitgeber for smolting in Atlantic salmon. J Exp Biol 205:3553–3560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. McCormick SD, Regish AM, Christensen AK (2009) Distinct freshwater and seawater isoforms of Na+/K + −ATPase in gill chloride cells of Atlantic salmon. J Exp Biol 212:3994–4001PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nilsen TO, Ebbesson LOE, Madsen SS, McCormick SD, Andersson E, Björnsson BT, Prunet P, Stefansson SO (2007) Differential expression of gill Na+, K+ -ATPase α- and β-subunits, Na+, K+,2Cl– cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. J Exp Biol 210:2885–2896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nilsen TO, Ebbesson LOE, Kiilerich P, Björnsson BT, Madsen SS, McCormick S, Stefansson SO (2008) Endocrine system in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): seasonal development and seawater acclimation. Gen Comp Endocr 155:762–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nilsen TO, Ebbesson LOE, Kverneland OG, Kroglund F, Finstad B, Stefansson SO (2010) Effects of acidic water and aluminium exposure on gill Na+, K + ATPase— α subunit isoforms, enzyme activity, physiology and return rates in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquat Tox 97:250–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Olsvik PA, Lie KK, Jordal AEO, Nilsen TO, Hordvik I (2005) Evaluation of potential reference genes in real-time RT-PCR studies of Atlantic salmon. BMC Mol Biol 6:21PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pfaffl MW (2004) Quantification strategies in real-time PCR. In: Bustin SA (ed) A-Z of quantitative PCR. International University Line, La Jolla, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  25. Richards JG, Semple JW, Bystriansky JS, Schulte PM (2003) Na+/K+-ATPase α -isoform switching in gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during salinity transfer. J Exp Biol 206:4475–4486PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Scheffé H (1959) The analysis of variance. Wiley, New York, 477 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Shrimpton JM, McCormick SD (2003) Environmental and endocrine control of gill corticosteroid receptor number and affinity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during smolting. Aquaculture 222:83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shrimpton JM, Björnsson BT, McCormick SD (2000) Can Atlantic salmon smolt twice? Endocrine and biochemical changes during smolting. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:1969–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sower ST, Fawcett RS (1991) Changes in gill Na+, K + −ATPase, thyroxine and triiodothyronine of coho salmon held in two different rearing densities during smoltification. Comp Biochem Physiol 99:85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stefansson SO, Berge ÅI, Gunnarsson GS (1998) Changes in seawater tolerance and gill Na+, K+ −ATPase activity during desmoltification in Atlantic salmon kept in freshwater at different temperatures. Aquaculture 168:271–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stefansson SO, Björnsson BT, Ebbesson LOE, McCormick SD (2008) Smoltification. In: Finn RN, Kapoor BG (eds) Fish larval physiology. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 639–681Google Scholar
  32. Stefansson SO, Haugland M, Björnsson BT, McCormick SD, Holm M, Ebbesson LOE, Holst JC, Nilsen TO (2012) Growth, osmoregulation and endocrine changes in wild Atlantic salmon post-smolts during marine migration. Aquaculture 362:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Strand JET, Davidsen JG, Jørgensen EH, Rikardsen AH (2011) Seaward migrating Atlantic salmon smolts with low levels of gill Na+, K + −ATPase activity; is sea entry delayed? Env Biol Fish 90:317–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Teien HC, Kroglund F, Salbu B, Rosseland BO (2006) Gill reactivity of aluminium-species following liming. Sci Tot Env 58:206–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zar JH (1984) Biostatistical analysis. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 718 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sigurd O. Handeland
    • 1
    • 4
  • Albert K. Imsland
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lars O. E. Ebbesson
    • 1
  • Tom O. Nilsen
    • 2
  • Camilla D. Hosfeld
    • 4
  • Hans Ch. Teien
    • 5
  • Sigurd O. Stefansson
    • 2
  1. 1.Uni Research ASUniversity EnvironmentBergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of Bergen, High Technology CentreBergenNorway
  3. 3.Akvaplan-niva Iceland OfficeKópavogurIceland
  4. 4.Bergen University CollegeBergenNorway
  5. 5.Norwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway

Personalised recommendations