Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 97, Issue 3, pp 285–296 | Cite as

Osmoregulation and growth in offspring of wild Atlantic salmon at different temperatures

  • Sigurd O. Handeland
  • Albert K. Imsland
  • Lars O. E. Ebbesson
  • Tom O. Nilsen
  • Camilla D. Hosfeld
  • Hans Ch. Teien
  • Sigurd O. Stefansson


In order to investigate how changes in gill Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) α1a, α1b subunits, Na+, K+, 2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) and the apical cyctic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR-I) transcripts in wild Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts are affected by temperature during spring Atlantic salmon parr (initial mean length 12.8 cm, s.d. = 0.6, mean mass 22.1 g, s.d. = 3.2) originating from the Vosso river (western Norway) were reared under three temperature regimes (5.1, 8.1 and 10.8 °C) from March to May. The temperatures reflect the natural temperature range in the study river during late spring. Findings from the present study indicate that smolt development differs within same strains held at different temperatures. Hence an absolute lower temperature limit for smolt development in wild salmon may be difficult to define. Overall present findings indicate that the smolt window will be narrower in warmer water. A temperature controlled smolt window may signify serious implications for smolt survival in wild (i.e., if migrants are delayed by obstacles or if hatchery produced smolts are released to late).


Atlantic Salmon Wild strain Gill Na+ K+-ATPase subunits Na+ K+ 2Cl cotransporter Apical cyctic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator 



We thank the staff at ILAB for their assistance during this experiment. This study was financed by grant from the Norwegian Research Council. The experiment described has been approved by the local responsible laboratory animal science specialist under the surveillance of the Norwegian Animal Research Authority (NARA). The experiment was conducted in accordance with the laws and regulations controlling experiments in live animals on Norway, i.e. the Animal Protection Act of 20 December 1974, No. 73, chapter VI sections 20–22 and the Animal Protection Ordinance concerning Biological Experiments in Animals of 15 January 1996.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sigurd O. Handeland
    • 1
    • 4
  • Albert K. Imsland
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lars O. E. Ebbesson
    • 1
  • Tom O. Nilsen
    • 2
  • Camilla D. Hosfeld
    • 4
  • Hans Ch. Teien
    • 5
  • Sigurd O. Stefansson
    • 2
  1. 1.Uni Research ASUniversity EnvironmentBergenNorway
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of Bergen, High Technology CentreBergenNorway
  3. 3.Akvaplan-niva Iceland OfficeKópavogurIceland
  4. 4.Bergen University CollegeBergenNorway
  5. 5.Norwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway

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