Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 96, Issue 10–11, pp 1245–1256 | Cite as

Distribution pattern, endemism, threat status and conservation measures of fishes in the Tunga and Bhadra rivers of Western Ghats, India

  • Shahnawaz Ahmad
  • M. Muralidharan
  • M. Venkateshwarlu
  • M. Arunachalam
Article
  • 344 Downloads

Abstract

This study documents the distribution patterns, endemism and uniqueness (species richness) of fishes in the Tunga and Bhadra rivers of Western Ghats, India. We recorded 77 species represented by 7 orders, 16 families and 44 genera, of which 36 species are endemic to Western Ghats, 12 species endemic to India and 26 species endemic to the Indian Subcontinent. Based on our analysis on the distribution patterns, the Tunga River is richer in diversity and higher in endemism than the Bhadra. We calculated the similarity of the species composition among sites within these two rivers using the Jacquard index. The similarity index between the sampling sites of these rivers revealed that the similarity decreases with increasing distance between the sampling sites. Of the 77 fish species we collected, 8 species (11.1%) are in the Critical category, 10 species (13.8%) are in the High Risk category, 36 species (50%) are in the Moderate category and the remaining 18 species (25%) are at lower risk. The threat status of fishes found in the Tunga and Bhadra rivers strongly suggests the need for effective conservation measures to conserve the fish species richness of these rivers.

Keywords

Distribution Endemism Richness Threat status Western Ghats 

References

  1. Angermeier PL, Winston MR (1999) Characterizing fish community diversity across Virginia landscapes: pre-requisites for conservation. Ecol Appl 9:335–349Google Scholar
  2. Arunachalam M (2000) Assemblage structure of stream fishes in the Western Ghats, (India). Hydrobiologia 430:1–31Google Scholar
  3. Arunachalam M, Johnson JA, Sankaranarayanan A (1997) Fish diversity in rivers of Northern Karnataka. Int J Ecol Envir Sci 23:327–333Google Scholar
  4. Bhat A (2003) Diversity and composition of freshwater fishes in river systems of Central Western Ghats, India. Env Biol Fish 68:25–38Google Scholar
  5. Bhat A (2004) Patterns in the distribution of freshwater fishes in rivers of Central Western Ghats, India and their associations with environmental gradients. Hydrobiologi 529:83–97Google Scholar
  6. CAMP (1997) Report of the workshop on Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) for the Freshwater Fishes of India” organized by Zoos out Organization and NBFGH, Lucknow, 22–26 September, 1997, pp 156Google Scholar
  7. Changuex T, Pont D (1995) Ichthyogeographic regions and watershed size in the French river Rhone network. Hydrobiologia 300(301):355–363Google Scholar
  8. Dahanukar N, Rupesh R, Bhat A (2004) Distibution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. J Biogeography 31:123–136Google Scholar
  9. Daniels RJR (2003) Biodiversity of the Western Ghats: An overview. In: Gupta AK, Ajith Kumar, Ramakantha V (ed) Wildlife and Protected Areas, Conservation of Rainforests in India, ENVIS Bulletin- 4, pp 25–40.Google Scholar
  10. Easa PS, Shaji CP (1997) Freshwater fish diversity in Kerala part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Curr Sci 73:180–182Google Scholar
  11. Gaston KJ (2000) Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405:220–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hora SL (1949) Satpura hypothesis of the distribution of Malayan fauna and flora of peninsular India. Proc Natl Ins Sci India 15:309–314Google Scholar
  13. IUCN (2001) Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  14. Jayaram KC (1999) The freshwater fishes of the Indian region. Narendra Publishing House DelhiGoogle Scholar
  15. Kharat SS, Dahanukar N, Raut R (2000) Decline of freshwater fish of Pune urban area. J Ecol Soc 13(14):46–51Google Scholar
  16. Lennon JJ, Kloeff P, Greenwood JJ (2001) The geographic structure of British bird distributions: diversity, spatial turnover and scale. J Anim Ecol 70:966–979Google Scholar
  17. Lyons J (1996) Patterns in the species composition of fish assemblages among Wisconsin streams. Env Biol Fish 45:329–341Google Scholar
  18. Matthews WJ, Robinson HW (1998) Influence of drainage connectivity, drainage area, regional species and richness of fishes of the interior highland in Arkansas. Am Mid Nat 139:1–19Google Scholar
  19. Minshall GW, Cummins KW, Peterson RC, Cushing CE, Burns DA, Sedell JR, Vannote RL (1985) Development and instream ecosystem theory. Can J Fish Aqua Sci 42:1045–1055Google Scholar
  20. Mittermeier RA, Myers N, Thomsen JB, da Fonesca GAB, Oliveri S (1998) Biodiversity hotspots and majortropical wilderness areas: approaches to setting conservation priorities. Conserv Biol 12:516–520Google Scholar
  21. Muralidharan M (2008) Fish habitats and communities in upland streams of Western Ghats. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, submitted to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tamilnadu, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  22. Myers N (1990) The biodiversity challenge: expanded hotspots analysis. Environmentalist 10:243–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, da Fonesca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ponnaiah A, Gopalakrishnan GA (2000) Endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow IndiaGoogle Scholar
  25. Rema Devi K (2003) Freshwater fish diversity. In: Venkataraman K (ed) Natural Aquatic Ecosystems of India, Thematic Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Zoological Survey of India, KolkattaGoogle Scholar
  26. Rosenzweig ML (1995) Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  27. Shahnawaz A, Venkateshwarlu M, Somashekar DS, Santosh K (2009) Fish diversity with relation to water quality of Bhadra River of Western Ghats (India). Environ Monit Assess 161(1–4):83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Talwar PK, Jhingran A (1991) Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  29. Vannote RL, Minshall GW, Cummins KW, Cushing CE (1980) The river Continuum concept. Can J Fish Aqua Sci 37:132–137Google Scholar
  30. Whittier TR, Hughes RM, Larson DP (1988) Correspondence between ecoregions and spatial patterns in stream ecosystems in Oregon. Can J Fish Aqua Sci 45:1264–1278Google Scholar
  31. Yadav BE (1997) Studies on systematics and zoogeography of the fishes of Western Ghats with observations on the status of endemic species. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to Shivaji University, India.Google Scholar
  32. Yadav BE (2000) Conservation strategies: the ichthyofauna of northern part of Western Ghats and its conservation. In: Ponniah AG, Gopalakrishnan A (eds) Endemic fish diversity of Western Ghats National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources. Lucknow, India, pp 145–147Google Scholar
  33. Zalewski M, Naiman RJ (1985) The regulation of riverine fish community by continum of abiotic-biotic factors. In: Alabaster JS (ed) Habitat modification and freshwater fisheries. Proceedings of a Symposium of the European Inland Fisheries Advisory Council. FAO/UN, Rome Italy, pp 3–9Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahnawaz Ahmad
    • 1
  • M. Muralidharan
    • 2
  • M. Venkateshwarlu
    • 1
  • M. Arunachalam
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Applied ZoologyKuvempu UniversityShimogaIndia
  2. 2.Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Environmental SciencesManonmaniam Sundaranar UniversityAlwarkurichiIndia

Personalised recommendations