Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 89, Issue 3–4, pp 313–317 | Cite as

Validation of first annulus formation in red snapper otoliths with the use of an alizarin complexone fluorescent marker

  • Andrew J. Fischer
  • Edward J. Chesney
  • James H. CowanJr.
Article

Abstract

The red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) is among the most studied reef fish species in the Gulf of Mexico. Several studies have used counts of annuli in sectioned sagittal otoliths to age red snapper. However, interpretation of the putative first annulus has been a major source of debate among otolith readers throughout the Gulf of Mexico. Our objective was to use the chemical marker alizarin complexone to validate the periodicity of first opaque annulus formation in red snapper otolith sections. Juvenile red snapper were immersed in 100 mg alizarin complexone per L seawater solution in November 2005 and then reared in 6000 l circular tanks until July 2006. Otoliths were then removed from the fish and thin sectioned. All experimental otolith sections displayed a distinct fluorescent mark ranging from 0.62 to 0.96 mm from the core when viewed under the microscope with a rhodamine filter. The diffuse opaque annulus was located distally to the alizarin mark in all specimens (ranging from 0.88 to 1.51 mm). The distal position of the presumptive first annulus relative to the alizarin mark in all specimens indicates that this diffuse opaque annulus in red snapper sectioned otoliths forms during the first winter after hatching. Translucent marginal edges of all otolith sections indicate that first opaque annulus formation is completed by mid-July.

Keywords

Red snapper Alizarin Otolith Gulf of Mexico Annulus Validation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank R. J. David Wells for providing juvenile red snapper samples for this study. We would like to thank Dave L. Nieland as well as two anonymous reviewers for their reviews of this manuscript. We would also like to thank Matthew Brown and Cindy Henk from the Louisiana State University Socolofsky Microscopy Center. Funding for this research was provided by the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries through the Sport Fish Restoration Grant F-97 “Stock Assessment of Louisiana’s Important Marine Finfishes.”

References

  1. Allman RJ, Fitzhugh GR (2007) Temporal age progressions and relative-year-class strength of Gulf of Mexico red snapper. In: Patterson WF III, Cowan JH Jr, Fitzhugh GR, Nieland DL (eds). Red snapper ecology and fisheries in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 60, Bethesda, Maryland, pp 283–299Google Scholar
  2. Allman RJ, Limbardi-Carlson LA, Fitzhugh GR, Fable WA (2002) Age structure of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) in the Gulf of Mexico by fishing mode and region. In: Creswell RL (ed). Proceedings of the Fifty-Third Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, Fort Pierce, Florida, pp 482–495Google Scholar
  3. Allman RJ, Fitzhugh GR, Starzinger KJ, Farsky RA (2005) Precision of age estimation in red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus). Fish Res 73:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beamish RJ, Chilton DE (1982) Preliminary evaluation of a method to determine the age of sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beamish RJ, McFarlane GA (1983) The forgotten requirement for age for age validation in fisheries biology. Trans Am Fish Soc 112:735–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beamish RJ, Mcfarlane GA (1995) A discussion of the importance of ageing errors, and an application to walleye Pollock: the world’s largest fishery. In: Secor DH, Dean JM, Campana SE (eds). Recent developments in fish otolith research. Columbia, University of South Carolina Press, pp 545–565Google Scholar
  7. Beckman DW, Wilson CA (1995) Seasonal timing of opaque zone formation infish otoliths. In: Secor DH, Dean JM, Campana SE (eds) Recent developments in fish otolith research. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 27–43Google Scholar
  8. Beckman DW, Schulz RG (1996) A simple method for marking fish otoliths with alizarin compounds. Trans Am Fish Soc 125:146–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campana SE (1999) Chemistry and composition of fish otoliths: pathways, mechanisms, and applications. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 188:263–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campana SE (2001) Accuracy, precision, and quality control in age determination, including a review of the use and abuse of age validation methods. J Fish Biol 59:197–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Collins LA, Johnson AG, Kiem CP (1996) Spawning and annual fecundity of the red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) from the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. ICLARM Conf. Proc. 48, 174–188Google Scholar
  12. Fischer AJ (2007) An overview of age and growth of red snapper in the Gulf of Mexico. In: Patterson WF III, Cowan JH Jr, Fitzhugh GR, Nieland DL (eds) Red snapper ecology and fisheries in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 60, Bethesda, Maryland, pp 189–200Google Scholar
  13. Fischer AJ, Baker MS Jr, Wilson CA (2004) Red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) demographic structure in the northern Gulf of Mexico based on spatial patterns in growth rates and morphometrics. Fish Bull 102:593–603Google Scholar
  14. Manooch CS III, Potts JC (1997) Age and growth of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, Lutjanidae, collected along the southeastern United States from North Carolina through the east coast of Florida. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 113:111–122Google Scholar
  15. Nieland DA, Fischer AJ, Baker MS Jr, Wilson CA (2007) Red snapper in the northern Gulf of Mexico: age and size composition of the commercial harvest and mortality of regulatory discards. In: Patterson WF III, Cowan JH Jr, Fitzhugh GR, Nieland DL (eds) Red snapper ecology and fisheries in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 60, Bethesda, Maryland, pp 273–281Google Scholar
  16. Patterson WF III, Cowan JH, Jr WCA, Shipp RL (2001) Age and growth of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, from an artificial reef area off Alabama in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Fish Bull 99:617–627Google Scholar
  17. Render, J. H. (1995) The life history (age, growth, and reproduction) of red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) and its affinity for oil and gas platforms. PhD. Dissertation, Louisiana State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  18. Schramm HL Jr (1989) Formation of annuli in otoliths of bluegills. Trans Am Fish Soc 118:546–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. VanderKooy S (ed) (2009) A practical handbook for determining the age of gulf of Mexico fishes–Second Edition. Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Publication Number 167. Ocean Springs, MississippiGoogle Scholar
  20. Wells RJD, Rooker JR (2004) Distribution, age, and growth of young-of-the-year greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili) associated with pelagic Sargassum. Fish Bull 102:545–554Google Scholar
  21. Wilson CA, Beckman DW (1987) Calcein and a fluorescent marker of otoliths of larval and juvenile fish. Trans Am Fish Soc 116:668–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wilson CA, Nieland DL (2001) Age and Growth of red snapper, Lutjanus campechanus, from the northern Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana. Fish Bull 99:653–664Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew J. Fischer
    • 1
  • Edward J. Chesney
    • 2
  • James H. CowanJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Oceanography and Coastal SciencesLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.Louisiana Universities Marine ConsortiumChauvinUSA

Personalised recommendations