Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 83, Issue 4, pp 429–437 | Cite as

Stable isotope analyses of otoliths in identification of hatchery origin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Maine

  • Yongwen Gao
  • David Bean
Article

Abstract

We conducted stable oxygen and carbon isotope analyses for otoliths of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), in an attempt to develop a reference database on isotopic variability among private and federal hatcheries in Maine which currently support the salmon aquaculture industry and recovery of endangered populations. During the first phase of our study, we collected 40–50 sagittal otoliths of juvenile Atlantic salmon from each of the five hatcheries and analyzed for stable oxygen and carbon isotope ratios (18O/16O or δ18O, and 13C/12C or δ13C). Combination of δ18O and δ13C signatures in otoliths showed that the five hatcheries can be clearly separated and chemically distinguished. By identifying stable isotopic variations of otoliths from different hatchery settings, we were able to establish some isotopic criteria or standards to assign a likelihood that an individual Atlantic salmon came from a specific hatchery within the reference database. If successful, a diagnostic tool that can provide definitive information on identification of the hatchery origin could serve as a novel marking technique, and the chemical method may provide a more effective alternative to DNA analysis for mixed stocks. Overall our isotopic data from otoliths support the hypothesis that there are detectable differences between the five hatcheries, and multiple statistical analyses indicated that we can correctly distinguish individual Atlantic salmon into a hatchery with high confidence.

Keywords

Aquaculture salmon Restoration hatchery Statistical difference δ13C and δ18

Notes

Acknowledgements

This project could not have been done without the interest and support of Makah Tribal Council and the NOAA Fisheries Protected Resources Division, Northeast Regional Office (NERO) in Gloucester. Many staff members and individuals at both federal and private hatcheries and NERO helped us during the otolith sample collection and analysis. We especially thank Mary Colligan and Pat Scida at NERO for their support for the initiation of the project. We also thank Cooke Aquaculture, Oren Kephart (Gardner Lake hatchery), Greg Lambert (Oquossoc hatchery), and Brian Wheeler (Bingham hatchery) for providing salmon smolts from commercial hatcheries; and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Fred Trasko (GLNFH) and Tom King (CBNFH) for providing salmon smolts from federal hatcheries for otolith sampling. In addition, Greg Lambert, Denise Buckley, and Fred Trasko kindly provided water temperature records from their hatcheries. Wesley Patrick in NERO and Tim Sheehan in Northeast Fisheries Science Center in Woods Hole helped us in statistical analyses. We are grateful to Ms. Lora Wingate at the Stable Isotope Laboratory, University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, for her assistance with processing otolith samples. Three anonymous reviewers made comments and suggestions that improved the quality of the initial manuscript.

References

  1. Cairns DK (2001) An evaluation of possible causes of the decline in pre-fishery abundance of North American Atlantic salmon. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 2358Google Scholar
  2. DeNiro MJ, Epstein S (1978) Influence of diet on the distribution of carbon isotopes in animals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42:495–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Devereux I (1967) Temperature measurements from oxygen isotope ratios of fish otoliths. Science 155:1684–1685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Epstein S, Buchsbaum R, Lowenstam HA, Urey HC (1953) Revised carbonate-water isotopic temperature scale. Geol Soc Am Bull 64:1315–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fry B (1988) Food web structure on Georges Bank from stable C, N, and S isotopic compositions. Limnol Oceanogr 33:1182–1190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gao YW (2002) Regime shift signatures from stable oxygen isotopic records of otoliths of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Isotopes Environ Health Stud 38:251–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gao YW, Beamish RJ (1999) Isotopic composition of otoliths as a chemical tracer in population identification of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:2062–2068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gao YW, Beamish RJ (2003) Stable isotopic composition of otoliths from tagged Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis. Environ Biol Fish 67:253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gao YW, Svec R, Joner S, Hinton J, Zajac D (2004) Stable isotopic composition of otoliths from hatchery and wild chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Makah Bay, Washington. Am Fish Soc Sym 44:515–525Google Scholar
  10. Gao YW, Bargmann GG, Brand U, Noakes DLG (2005) Stable isotopic and trace elemental compositions of otoliths and the stock structure of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus). Environ Biol Fish 74:335–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gao YW, Sones DB, Svec RA (2007) The hatchery and native origin of Lake Ozette sockeye salmon from stable isotopic records of otoliths. Am Fish Soc Sym 54:105–115Google Scholar
  12. Grossman EL, Ku TL (1986) Oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation in biogenic aragonite: temperature effects. Chem Geol 59:59–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kalish JM (1991) Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in the otoliths of wild and laboratory-reared Australian salmon (Arripis trutta). Mar Biol 110:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kennedy BP, Klaue A, Blum J, Folt C, Nislow K (2002) Reconstructing the lives of fish using Sr isotopes in otoliths. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:925–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. King TL, Spidle AP, Eackles MS, Lubinski BA, Schill WB (2000) Mitochondrial DNA diversity in North American and European Atlantic salmon with emphasis on the Downeast Rivers of Maine. J Fish Biol 57:614–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Klaue A, Kennedy B, Blum J, Folt C, Lohmann K (2000) Sr isotope markers in otolith growth increments of Atlantic salmon. In: Abstract of the Goldschmidt 2000 conference 5(2):590, Oxford, UK, 3–8 September 2000Google Scholar
  17. Lacroix GL, Knox D (2005) Distribution of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) postsmolts of different origins in the Bay of Fundy and Gulf of Maine and evaluation of factors affecting migration, growth, and survival. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 62:1363–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Luedke W, Gao YW (2001) Development of a new stock discrimination tool for naturally spawning sockeye salmon within Alberni Inlet from stable isotopic composition of otoliths. NPAFC Tech Rep 3:11–12Google Scholar
  19. Nelson CS, Northcote TG, Hendy CH (1989) Potential use of oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of otoliths to identify migratory and non-migratory stocks of the New Zealand common smelt: A pilot study. New Zealand J Mar Freshwater Res 23:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pannella G (1971) Fish otoliths: daily growth layers and periodical patterns. Science 173:1124–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Patterson WP, Smith GR, Lohmann KC (1993) Continental paleothermometry and seasonality using the isotopic composition of aragonitic otoliths of freshwater fishes. In: Swart PK, Lohmann KC, McKenzie J, Savin S (eds) Climate change in continental isotopic records. Geophysical Monograph, vol 78. Washington, DC, pp 191–202Google Scholar
  22. Schwarcz HP, Gao YW, Campana S, Browne D, Knyf M, Brand U (1998) Stable carbon isotope variations in otoliths of cod (Gadus morhua). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:1798–1806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Solomon CT, Weber PK, Cech JJ, Ingram BL, Conrad ME, Machavaram MV, Pogodina AR, Franklin RL (2006) Experimental determination of the sources of otolith carbon and associated isotopic fractionation. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thodesen J, Storebakken T, Shearer KD, Rye M, Bjerkeng B, Gjerde B (2001) Genetic variation in mineral absorption of large Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in seawater. Aquaculture 194:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Urey HC (1947) The thermodynamic properties of isotopic substances. J Chem Soc 1947:562–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. USFWS (United States Fish and Wildlife Service), NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) (2000) Final endangered status for a distinct population segment of anadromous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Gulf of Maine. FR 65(17 November 2000):69459–69483Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Makah Fisheries ManagementNeah BayUSA
  2. 2.College of FisheriesHuazhong Agricultural UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.NOAA/NMFS Northeast Regional OfficeGloucesterUSA

Personalised recommendations