Environmental and Resource Economics

, Volume 44, Issue 1, pp 47–70 | Cite as

Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions

  • Ekaterini Panopoulou
  • Theologos Pantelidis


We examine convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among 128 countries for the period 1960–2003 by means of a new methodology introduced by Phillips and Sul (Econometrica 75(6):1771–1855, 2007a). Contrary to previous studies, our approach allows us to examine for evidence of club convergence, i.e. identify groups of countries that converge to different equilibria. Our results suggest convergence in per capita CO2 emissions among all the countries under scrutiny in the early years of our sample. However, there seem to be two separate convergence clubs in the recent era that converge to different steady states. Interestingly, we also find evidence of transitioning between the two convergence clubs suggesting either a slow convergence between the two clubs or a tendency for some countries to move from one convergence club to the other.


Convergence club Carbon dioxide emissions Nonlinear time-varying factor model Relative transition 

JEL Classification

C23 Q53 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Statistics and Insurance ScienceUniversity of PiraeusPiraeusGreece
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsNational University of IrelandMaynoothIreland
  3. 3.Department of EconomicsUniversity of CreteRethymnoGreece

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