Are we ready for Gamification? An exploratory analysis in a developing country

Abstract

Integrating gamification in the learning process has become a significant factor in the success of teaching, learning, and research in higher education. Education can leverage gamification by enhancing learning management systems to make learning enjoyable and engaging for students. We, however, lack the underpinnings into factors affecting the acceptance of gamification in education. To help solve this, we tested and extended previous acceptance models. Overall, we explored the users’ perception and acceptance of adding gamification to learning among students in higher education. The results show that Image is an insignificant factor in students’ behavioral intention to use gamification. The current paper contributes to the perceptual process for gamification research in learning; deriving implications for gamification application and pioneering research on gamification acceptance in developing countries. We conclude with opportunities, practical and theoretical implications for researchers and practitioners to extend our knowledge of gamification research.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alexiou, A., & Schippers, M. C. (2018). Digital game elements, user experience and learning: A conceptual framework. Education and Information Technologies, 23(6), 2545–2567.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Barnes, J., & Kennewell, S. (2017). Investigating teacher perceptions of teaching ICT in Wales. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2485–2497.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Boateng, R., Boateng, S. L., Awuah, R. B., Ansong, E., & Anderson, A. B. (2016). Videos in learning in higher education: Assessing perceptions and attitudes of students at the University of Ghana. Smart Learning Environments, 3(1), 8.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bokhari, R. H. (2005). The relationship between system usage and user satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 18(2), 211–234.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Bourgonjon, J., Valcke, M., Soetaert, R., & Schellens, T. (2010). Students’ perceptions about the use of video games in the classroom. Computers & Education, 54(4), 1145–1156.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Cohen, J. (1994). The earth is round (P-less-than.05). American Psychologist, 49(12), 997–1003. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.49.12.997.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Davis, F., Bagozzi, R., & Warshaw, P. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science [serial online], 35(8), 982–1003.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Warshaw, P. R. (1992). Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation to use computers in the workplace 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(14), 1111–1132.

    Google Scholar 

  10. De-Marcos, L., García-Cabot, A., & García-López, E. (2017). Towards the social Gamification of e-learning: A practical experiment. International Journal of Engineering Education, 33(1), 66–73.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Deng, L., Turner, D. E., Gehling, R., & Prince, B. (2010). User experience, satisfaction, and continual usage intention of IT. European Journal of Information Systems, 19(1), 60–75.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O'Hara, K., & Dixon, D. (2011). Gamification: Using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts. In Proceedings of the CHI 2011. Vancouver, BC, Canada, 10.1145/1979742.1979575.

  13. Featherstone, M., & Habgood, J. (2019). UniCraft: Exploring the impact of asynchronous multiplayer game elements in gamification. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 127, 150–168.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Filippou, J., Cheong, C., & Cheong, F. (2018). A model to investigate preference for use of Gamification in a learning activity. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 22.

  15. Fisher, D. J., Beedle, J., & Rouse, S. E. (2013). Gamification: A study of business teacher educators' knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences with the gamification of activities in the classroom. The Journal of Research in Business Education, 56(1), 1.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ghani, J. A., & Deshpande, S. P. (1994). Task characteristics and the experience of optimal flow in human-computer interaction. The Journal of Psychology, 128(4), 381–391.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Hamari, J. (2013). Transforming homo economicus into homo ludens: A field experiment on gamification in a utilitarian peer-to-peer trading service. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 12(4), 236–245.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Hanus, M. D., & Fox, J. (2015). Assessing the effects of gamification in the classroom: A longitudinal study on intrinsic motivation, social comparison, satisfaction, effort, and academic performance. Computers & Education, 80, 152–161.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Harwood, T., & Garry, T. (2015). An investigation into gamification as a customer engagement experience environment. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(6/7), 533–546.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Holmes, J. B., & Gee, E. R. (2016). A framework for understanding game-based teaching and learning. On the Horizon, 24(1), 1–16.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Hsu, S. H., Chang, J. W., & Lee, C. C. (2013). Designing attractive gamification features for collaborative storytelling websites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(6), 428–435.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Jasperson, J. S., Carter, P. E., & Zmud, R. W. (2005). A comprehensive conceptualization of post-adoptive behaviors associated with information technology enabled work systems. MIS Quarterly, 29(3), 525–557.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Kapp, K. M. (2012). The gamification of learning and instruction: Game-based methods and strategies for training and education. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Katz, R., Rebentisch, E. S., & Alien, T. J. (1996). A study of technology transfer in a multinational cooperative joint venture. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 43(1), 97–105.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Kim, H., Suh, K. S., & Lee, U. K. (2013). Effects of collaborative online shopping on shopping experience through social and relational perspectives. Information & Management, 50(4), 169–180.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Kolog, E. A. (2018). Detecting emotions in students’ generated content: An evaluation of EmoTect system. In International Conference on Technology in Education (pp. 235–248). Springer, Singapore. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-0008-0_22. Accessed on 8 Jan 2019.

  28. Leaning, M. (2015). A study of the use of games and gamification to enhance student engagement, experience and achievement on a theory-based course of an undergraduate media degree. Journal of Media Practice, 16(2), 155–170.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Liu, D., Santhanam, R., & Webster, J. (2017). Toward meaningful engagement: A framework for design and research of Gamified information systems. MIS Quarterly, 41(4).

  30. Mattingly, B. A., & Lewandowski Jr., G. W. (2013). The power of one: Benefits of individual self-expansion. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(1), 12–22.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Moore, G. C., & Benbasat, I. (1991). Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation. Information Systems Research, 2, 192–222.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Nousiainen, T., Kangas, M., Rikala, J., & Vesisenaho, M. (2018). Teacher competencies in game-based pedagogy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 74, 85–97.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Ngampornchai, A., & Adams, J. (2016). Students’ acceptance and readiness for E-learning in northeastern Thailand. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 13(1), 34.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Ofosu-Ampong, K., & Boateng, R. (2018). Gamifying Sakai: Understanding game elements for learning. In Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth Americas Conference on Information Systems. Retrieved from: https://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2018/Education/Presentations/4. Accessed on 8 Jan 2019.

  36. Peart, D. J., Rumbold, P. L., Keane, K. M., & Allin, L. (2017). Student use and perception of technology-enhanced learning in a mass lecture knowledge-rich domain first-year undergraduate module. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14(1), 40.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Lee, J., & Podsakoff, N. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Prinsloo, M., & Snyder, I. (2007). Young people’s engagement with digital literacies in marginal contexts in a globalized world. Language and Education, 21(3), 171–179.

    Google Scholar 

  39. Robey, D., Anderson, C., & Raymond, B. (2013). Information technology, materiality, and organizational change: A professional odyssey. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 14(7), 1.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of innovation (5th ed.). New York: The Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Robertson, J., Sorbello, T., & Unsworth, K. (2008). Innovation implementation: The role of technology diffusion agencies. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 3(3), 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Roldán, J. L., & Sánchez-Franco, M. J. (2012). Variance-based structural equation modeling: Guidelines for using partial least squares in information systems research. In Research methodologies, innovations and philosophies in software systems engineering and information systems (pp. 193-221). IGI global.

  43. Rooney, P. (2012). A theoretical framework for serious game design: Exploring pedagogy, play and fidelity and their implications for the design process. International Journal of Game-Based Learning (IJGBL), 2(4), 41–60.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Santhanam, R., Liu, D., & Shen, W. C. M. (2016). Research note—Gamification of technology-mediated training: Not all competitions are the same. Information Systems Research, 27(2), 453–465.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Seaborn, K., & Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 74, 14–31.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Setterstrom, A. J., & Pearson, J. M. (2019). Social influence and willingness to pay for massively multiplayer online games: An empirical examination of social identity theory. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 44(1), 2.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Son, M., & Han, K. (2011). Beyond the technology adoption: Technology readiness effects on post-adoption behavior. Journal of Business Research, 64(11), 1178–1182.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Ssekakubo, G., Suleman, H., & Marsden, G. (2011). Issues of adoption: Have E-learning management systems fulfilled their potential in developing countries? In Proceedings of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists Conference on Knowledge, Innovation and Leadership in a Diverse, Multidisciplinary Environment (pp. 231–238). Cape Town, South Africa.: ACM New York. 10.1145/2072221.2072248.

  49. Strmečki, D., Bernik, A., & Radošević, D. (2015). Gamification in e-learning: Introducing gamified design elements into e-learning systems. Journal of Computer Science, 11(12), 1108–1117.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Thompson, R., Barclay, D. W., & Higgins, C. A. (1995). The partial least squares approach to causal modeling: Personal computer adoption and use as an illustration. Technology Studies: Special Issue on Research Methodology, 2(2), 284–324.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Treiblmaier, H., Putz, L. M., & Lowry, P. B. (2018). Research commentary: Setting a definition, context, and theory-based research agenda for the Gamification of non-gaming applications. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 10(3), 129–163.

    Google Scholar 

  52. UNICEF Ghana Report (2017). “Handwashing with Ananse.” Evaluating the effectiveness of a game-based handwashing curriculum to generate learning and behavior change. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/ghana/HWWA_Evaluation_White_Paper.pdf. .

  53. Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27, 425–478.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Verkijika, S. F., & De Wet, L. (2015). Using a brain-computer interface (BCI) in reducing math anxiety: Evidence from South Africa. Computers & Education, 81, 113–122.

    Google Scholar 

  55. Walton, M., & Pallitt, N. (2012). ‘Grand theft South Africa’: Games, literacy and inequality in consumer childhoods. Language and Education, 26(4), 347–361.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Yang, Y., Asaad, Y., & Dwivedi, Y. (2017). Examining the impact of gamification on intention of engagement and brand attitude in the marketing context. Computers in Human Behaviour, 73, 459–469.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

KOA and RB formulated the study idea and developed the conceptual framework. KOA, RB, TAD and EAK designed the data collection instrument and KOA collected the data. KOA, TAD, and EAK analyzed and interpreted the research data. All authors wrote, read, and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Richard Boateng.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ofosu-Ampong, K., Boateng, R., Anning-Dorson, T. et al. Are we ready for Gamification? An exploratory analysis in a developing country. Educ Inf Technol 25, 1723–1742 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-019-10057-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Gamification supported learning
  • Acceptance of gamification
  • User perception
  • Game elements