How is language used to craft social presence in Facebook? A case study of an undergraduate writing course
- 453 Downloads
This quantitative content analysis examines the way social presence was created through original posts and comments in a Facebook group for an undergraduate writing course. The author adapted a well-known coding template and examined how course members—one instructor, two undergraduate teaching assistants and twenty-two students--used language and image to generate social presence. Language is categorized by purpose, and each category is a social presence indicator. The results show which social presence indicators are used more frequently by course members and that social presence is higher when certain social presence indicators are utilized. Since existing research indicates that social presence is associated with increased course satisfaction and learning, these findings provide practical knowledge for faculty seeking to increase social presence in their classes. This is a case study with a small population, but these results indicate the need for additional research to further explore how language and image are used to generate social presence in Facebook.
KeywordsFacebook Social presence Community of inquiry Online learning
Many thanks to Jeanine Guidry, doctoral student at Virginia Commonwealth University, for her comprehensive and exhaustive help with this research, and to Marcus Messner, for his support and assistance with this project.
- Akyol, Z., & Garrison, D. R. (2014). The development of a community of inquiry over time in an online course: Understanding the progression and integration of social, cognitive and teaching presence. The Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks. 12 (3–4). Retrieved from http://jaln.sloanconsortium.org/index.php/jaln.
- Barczyk, C. C., & Duncan, D. G. (2013). Facebook in Higher Education Courses: An Analysis of Students’ Attitudes, Community of Practice, and Classroom Community. International Business and Management, 6(1), 1–11. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3968%2Fj.ibm.1923842820130601.1165.
- Bulu, S. T. (2012). Place presence, social presence, co-presence, and satisfaction in virtual worlds. Computers & Education, 58(1), 154–161. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.024.
- Choi, A. (2013). Use of Facebook group feature to promote student collaboration. Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE Southeast Section Conference, USA, Retrieved from http://se.asee.org.
- De Villiers, M. R. (2010). Academic use of a group on Facebook: Initial findings and perceptions. Proceedings of Informing Science & IT Education Conference, 173–190. Retrieved from http://umkn-dsp01.unisa.ac.za/.
- DeSchryver, M., Mishra, P., Koehleer, M., & Francis, A. (2009, March). Moodle vs. Facebook: does using Facebook for discussions in an online course enhance perceived social presence and student interaction? Proceedings of the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference, 1, 329–336. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/noaccess/30612/.
- Duncan, D. G., & Barczyk, C. C. (2013). Facebook in the University Classroom: Do Students Perceive that it Enhances Community of Practice and Sense of Community? International Journal of Business and Social Science, 4 (3). Retrieved from http://www.ijbssnet.com/.
- Garrison, D., Anderson, T., Archer, W. (1999). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education. 2(2), 87–105. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/.
- Hurt, N. E., Moss, G. S., Bradley, C. L., Larson, L. R., Lovelace, M. D., & Prevost, L. B. (2012). The Facebook effect: College students’ perceptions of online discussions in the age of social networking. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 6 (2) 10. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/ij-sotl/.
- Judd, T. (2013). Making sense of multitasking: Key behaviours. Computers & Education, 63, 358–367. Retrieved from http://www.journals.elsevier.com/computers-and-education/.
- Judd, T. (2014). Making sense of multitasking: The role of Facebook. Computers & Education, 70, 194–202. Retrieved from http://www.journals.elsevier.com/computers-and-education/.
- Karpinski, A. C., Kirschner, P. A., Ozer, I., Mellott, J. A., & Ochwo, P. (2013). An exploration of social networking site use, multitasking, and academic performance among United States and European university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1182–1192. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2012.10.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McCarthy, J. A. R. (2009). Utilizing Facebook: Immersing generation-Y students into first year university. The Journal of the Education Research Group of Adelaide, 1(2), 39–49.Google Scholar
- McDermott, J. (2014). Facebook losing its edge among college-aged adults. Digiday. Retrieved from: http://digiday.com/platforms/social-platforms-college-kids-now.
- Miller, S. T. (2013). Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions Via Facebook. Astronomy Education Review, 12(1), doi: 10.3847/AER2012031.
- Richardson, J., Swan, K., (2003). Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students’ perceived learning and satisfaction. The Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7 (1). Retrieved from http://jaln.sloanconsortium.org/index.php/jaln.
- Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, D. R., & Archer, W. (1999). Assessing social presence in asynchronous text-based computer conferencing. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 14(2).Google Scholar
- Schroeder, J., & Greenbowe, T. (2009). The chemistry of Facebook: Using social networking to create an online community for the organic chemistry laboratory. Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 5(4), 1–7. Retrieved from http://www.editlib.org/j/ISSN-1552-3233/.
- Short, J., Williams, E., & Christie, B. (1976). The social psychology of telecommuncations. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Stacey, E., & Gerbic, P. (2003, January). Investigating the impact of computer conferencing: Content analysis as a manageable research tool. Interact, Integrate, Impact: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education (ASCILITE) 495–503. Retrieved from http://dro.deakin.edu.au/eserv/DU:30005105/stacey-investigatingtheimpact-2003.pdf.