Tetrahydropyridinol derivatives were recently reported to exhibit good biological activities, and the incorporation of fluorine into organic molecules may have profound effects on their physical and biological properties. Therefore, we investigated the anticancer activities of six fluorinated tetrahydropyridinol derivatives that we synthesized previously. We found that only one compound, 3,3-difluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,6-diphenyl-5-tosyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-ol, showed significant antiproliferative activity on human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 and HMCCLM3 cells (the IC50 values were 21.25 and 29.07 μM, respectively). We also found that this compound mediated cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase at 30–40 μM. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the cell cycle arrest induced by this compound in HepG2 and HMCCLM3 cells was associated with a significant decrease in Cdc2 and cyclin B1, which led to the accumulation of the phosphorylated-Tyr15 (inactive) form of Cdc2 and low expression of M phase-promoting factor (cyclin B1/Cdc2). Moreover, cells treated with this compound exhibited decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-activating kinase (CDK7/cyclin H). This compound also induced cell apoptosis via activation of caspase-3. A xenograft model in nude mice demonstrated anti-liver cancer activity and the mechanism of action of this compound. These findings indicated that the anticancer effect of this compound was partially due to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via inhibition of CDK7-mediated expression of Cdc2, and this compound may be a promising anticancer candidate for further investigation.
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This work was supported by postdoctoral research station of Central South University and funded by the Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2016JJ5013) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81372516).
The authors declare no competing interests.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. The Institute Research Ethics Committee of Central South University approved this experiment (No. 2018-SYDW-0111). All procedures performed in studies involving animals were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Animal Ethics Committee of Central South University(Changsha, Hunan Province, China) which the studies were conducted.
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Bi, W., Xiao, J., Liu, R. et al. Identification of a 3,3-difluorinated tetrahydropyridinol compound as a novel antitumor agent for hepatocellular carcinoma acting via cell cycle arrest through disturbing CDK7-mediated phosphorylation of Cdc2. Invest New Drugs 38, 287–298 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00792-6
- Human hepatocellular carcinoma