Clinical trial design in biosimilar drug development
- 1.9k Downloads
In contrast to most drugs which are chemically synthesized and have a known structure, biological drugs are derived from living organisms or their products. Biologicals are structurally more complex and unique from chemically synthesized small drug molecules because of their larger size and intricate manufacturing process. Secondary to their protein structure, they are also more prone to acute and chronic immune responses. Biosimilars are intended to offer comparable safety and efficacy relative to reference brand biologicals, yet they are not generic alternatives to the original compounds and so are currently not considered interchangeable. Given their structural complexity, multifaceted manufacturing processes and risk for immunogenicity, biosimilars require class-specific regulatory approval pathways. Here we seek to provide a general overview of clinical trial design in the era of biosimilar drug development. This will include a review of the regulatory requirements for clinical trials in Europe and the United States, followed by a review of two biosimilars that have recently reported results of randomized trials against branded biologicals.
KeywordsBiosimilars Follow on biologics Regulations Non-inferiority Clinical trial
G. Dranitsaris: wrote manuscript, literature review
K. Dorward: literature review, edited manuscript
E. Hatzimichael: literature review, edited manuscript
E. Amir: literature review, edited manuscript
Declaration of competing interests
None of the authors have competing interests to declare. This review did not receive any funding.
- 2.Insulin synthesis and secretion. July 25, 2012. (http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/pancreas/insulin.html) Accessed July 25, 2010.
- 3.Product monograph: Neupogen. (http://www.amgen.ca/Neupogen_PM.pdf). Accessed July 25, 2010.
- 4.Infliximab for injection. (http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2009/103772s5234lbl.pdf). Accessed July 25, 2010.
- 8.Kueppers E (2010) Follow on biologics: how to develop a competitive advantage. Business Development and Licensing Journal 12:17–18Google Scholar
- 9.Zacks Investment Research. Biosimilars: The next big thing. January 13, 2012. (http://www.dailymarkets.com/stock/2012/01/13/biosimilars-the-next-big-thing/). Accessed July 25, 2012.
- 20.European Medicines Agency. Guideline on similar biological medicinal products containing monoclonal antibodies. November 18, 2010. (http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_guideline/2010/11/WC500099361.pdf), Accessed July 25, 2012.
- 21.US Food and Drug Administration. Feb 9, 2012. (http://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/ucm291232.htm). Accessed July 25, 2012.
- 22.Yoo D, Miranda P, Piotrowski M, et al. A randomized double blind phase 3 study demonstrates clinical equivalence of CT-P13 to infliximab when co-administered with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Abstract FR10143. (http://www.gabionline.net/Biosimilars/Research/Biosimilar-infliximab-equivalence-proven-in-phase-III-trial)
- 23.Haydock I (2012) First approval for biosimilar infliximab, in South Korea. July 25, 2012. (http://www.scripintelligence.com/home/First-approval-for-biosimilar-infliximab-in-South-Korea-update) Accessed July 27, 2012
- 24.Gladkov O, Moiseyenko V, Bondarenko N et al (2011) A randomized, noninferiority study of recombinant human G-CSF/human serum albumin fusion (CG-10639) and pegfilgrastim in breast cancer patients receiving myelosuppressive therapy. J Clin Oncol 29:2011 (suppl: abstr 9086)Google Scholar
- 25.Volovat C, Gladkov OA, Bondarenko IM et al (2012) Efficacy and safety of balugrastim compared with pegfilgrastim in patients with breast cancer who are receiving chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer 20 (Suppl 1):S235 (abstract 986)Google Scholar
- 26.Teva Announces FDA Grants Approval for Tbo-filgrastim for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia. August 30, 2012. (http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20120830005436/en/Teva-Announces-FDA-Grants-Approval-Tbo-filgrastim-Treatment). Accessed October 30, 2012