Investigational New Drugs

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 271–276 | Cite as

Evidence for the involvement of p38 MAP kinase in the action of the vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA)

  • Liangli Zhao
  • Elaine S. Marshall
  • Lloyd R. Kelland
  • Bruce C. BaguleyEmail author
Short Report


Aims: DMXAA (AS1404), a small-molecule vascular disrupting agent that has now completed Phase II clinical trial, induces endothelial cell apoptosis, increased vascular permeability and decreased tumour blood flow in vivo. Its action is incompletely understood and we wished to develop an in vitro system to study its effects.

Methods: Human tumour cell lines developed from aggressive tumours were grown on Matrigel to simulate a tumour microenvironment. Cells were analysed by light microscopy and by gene expression profiling.

Results: Several cell lines formed networks when grown on Matrigel and the NZM7 melanoma cell line was chosen for further study. Addition of DMXAA at a clinically achievable concentration (30 μg/mL) prevented network formation, but co-addition of SB203580 (10 μM), a selective inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, reversed the effect of DMXAA and restored network formation. Analysis of expression genes for endothelial and related functions showed that cells growing on Matrigel expressed a pattern similar to that of NZM7 cells growing as xenografts in vivo but different from that of cells grown on standard tissue culture plates. Addition of DMXAA resulted in the inhibition of expression of several genes including the transcriptional activator Ets1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), but co-addition of SB203580 did not reverse these effects of DMXAA on gene expression.

Conclusion: The results suggest that p38 MAP kinase plays an important role in the action of DMXAA and that growth of tumour cells on Matrigel provides a promising model for further studies on the action of this drug.


Matrigel Tubulogenesis Endothelial Vascular disrupting agents p38 kinase 



This research was supported by the Auckland Cancer Society and by an Antisoma Postdoctoral Fellowship.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liangli Zhao
    • 1
  • Elaine S. Marshall
    • 1
  • Lloyd R. Kelland
    • 2
  • Bruce C. Baguley
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Auckland Cancer Society Research CentreFaculty of Medical and Health Sciences, the University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Antisoma Research Ltd.St. Georges Hospital Medical SchoolLondonUnited Kingdom

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