Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 128, Issue 2, pp 91–99 | Cite as

Contributing factors to VEP grating acuity deficit and inter-ocular acuity difference in children with cerebral visual impairment

  • Nívea Nunes Cavascan
  • Solange Rios Salomão
  • Paula Yuri Sacai
  • Josenilson Martins Pereira
  • Daniel Martins Rocha
  • Adriana Berezovsky
Original Research Article



To investigate contributing factors to visual evoked potential (VEP) grating acuity deficit (GAD) and inter-ocular acuity difference (IAD) measured by sweep-VEPs in children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI).


VEP GAD was calculated for the better acuity eye by subtracting acuity thresholds from mean normal VEP grating acuity according to norms from our own laboratory. Deficits were categorized as mild (0.17 ≤ deficit < 0.40 log units), moderate (0.40 ≤ deficit < 0.70 log units) or severe (deficit ≥0.70 log units). Maximum acceptable IAD was 0.10 log units.


A group of 115 children (66 males—57 %) with ages ranging from 1.2 to 166.5 months (median = 17.7) was examined. VEP GAD ranged from 0.17 to 1.28 log units (mean = 0.68 ± 0.27; median = 0.71), and it was mild in 23 (20 %) children, moderate in 32 (28 %) and severe in 60 (52 %). Severe deficit was significantly associated with older age and anti-seizure drug therapy. IAD ranged from 0 to 0.49 log units (mean = 0.06 ± 0.08; median = 0.04) and was acceptable in 96 (83 %) children. Children with strabismus and nystagmus had IAD significantly larger compared to children with orthoposition.


In a large cohort of children with CVI, variable severity of VEP GAD was found, with more than half of the children with severe deficits. Older children and those under anti-seizure therapy were at higher risk for larger deficits. Strabismus and nystagmus provided larger IADs. These results should be taken into account on the clinical management of children with this leading cause of bilateral visual impairment.


Cerebral visual impairment Grating acuity Sweep-VEP Child 



This study was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico-CNPq (Brasília, DF, Brazil) research fellowship (A. Berezovsy and S. R. Salomão). We thank Dr. Flavio E. Hirai for statistical assistance.

Conflict of interests



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nívea Nunes Cavascan
    • 1
  • Solange Rios Salomão
    • 1
  • Paula Yuri Sacai
    • 1
  • Josenilson Martins Pereira
    • 1
  • Daniel Martins Rocha
    • 1
  • Adriana Berezovsky
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Oftalmologia, Escola Paulista de MedicinaUniversidade Federal de São PauloSão PauloBrazil

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