Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 53–59 | Cite as

The photopic negative response of the flash electroretinogram in retinal vein occlusion

  • Hongling Chen
  • Dezheng Wu
  • Shizhou Huang
  • Hong Yan
Original Paper


The photopic negative response (PhNR) has recently been shown to be severely affected in central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), despite relative preservation of the cone b-wave compared to that in the healthy unaffected fellow eye. The aim of this study was to test how the PhNR of the flash electroretinogram (ERG) is affected in human retinal vein occlusion. PhNR was elicited with red stimuli (1 cd s/m2, 5 cd s/m2, and 7 cd s/m2 with 4 ms duration) and blue background (10 cd/m2). Standard Ganzfeld flash ERG was produced according to the ISCEV standard for the clinical electroretinogram (2004). Sixteen patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), 14 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and 16 controls were analyzed. The amplitude of the PhNRs was significantly smaller in the CRVO and BRVO eyes than those in the unaffected fellow or control eyes (p = 0.000). There was a significantly greater reduction of PhNR amplitudes than that of other waves including the OPs, rod b-wave, combined a-wave and b-wave, cone a-wave and b-wave, and 30 Hz flicker ERG. Thus, PhNR amplitude in retinal vein occlusion is severely affected. There is a potential role for PhNR in assessing inner retinal damage and evaluating the effect of treatment.


Electroretinogram CRVO BRVO Photopic negative response 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hayreh SS, Klugman MR, Podhajsky P, Kolder HE (1989) Electroretinography in central retinal vein occlusion; correlation of electroretinographic changes with pupillary abnormalities. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 227:549–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Williamson TH, Keating D, Bradnam M (1997) Electroretinography of central retinal vein occlusion under scotopic and photopic conditions: what to measure? Acta Ophthalmol Scand 75:48–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Viswanathan S, Frishman LJ (1997) Evidence that negative potentials in the photopic electroretinograms of cats and primates depend upon spiking activity of retinal ganglion cell axons. Soc Neurosci Abstr 23:1024Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Viswanathan S, Frishman LJ, Robson JG, Harwerth RS, Smith EL III (1999) The photopic negative response of the macaque electroretinogram is reduced by experimental glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 40:1124–1136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Drasdo N, Aldebasi YH, Chiti Z, Mortlock KE, Morgan JE, North RV (2001) The S-cone PhNR and pattern ERG in primary open angle glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:1266–1272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Colotto A, Falsini B, Salgarello T, Iarossi G, Galan ME, Scullica L (2000) Photopic negative response of the human ERG: losses associated with glaucomatous damage. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41:2205–2211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Viswanathan S, Frishman LJ, Robson JG, Walters JW (2001) The photopic negative response of the flash electroretinogram in primary open angle glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:514–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Machida S, Gotoh Y, Tanaka M, Tazawa Y (2004) Predominant loss of the photopic negative response in central retinal artery occlusion. Am J Ophthalmol 137:938–940PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kenyon GT, Moore B, Jeffs J, Denning KS, Stephens GJ, Travis BJ, George JS, Theiler J, Marshak DW (2003) A model of high-frequency oscillatory potentials in retinal ganglion cells. Vis Neurosci 20:465–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vigh J, Solessio E, Morgans CW, Lasater EM (2003) Ionic mechanisms mediating oscillatory membrane potentials in wide field retinal amacrine cells. J␣Neurophysiol 90:431–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bush RA, Sieving PA (1999) Inner retinal contributions to the primate photopic fast flicker electroretinogram. Vis Neurosci 16:345–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Larsson J, Bauer B, Andreasson S (2000) The 30-Hz flicker cone ERG for monitoring the early course of central retinal vein occlusion. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 78:187–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Larsson J, Andreasson S (2001) Photopic 30 Hz flicker ERG as a predictor for rubeosis in central retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol 85:683–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hood DC, Birch DG (1993) Human cone receptor activity: the leading edge of the a-wave and models of receptor activity. Vis Neurosci 10:857–871PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hood DC, Birch DG (1995) Phototransduction in human cones measured using the a-wave of the ERG. Vis Res 35:2801–2810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Friedburg C, Allen CP, Mason PJ, Lamb TD (2004) Contribution of cone photoreceptors and post-receptoral mechanisms to the human photopic electroretinogram. J Physiol 556:819:834PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Robson JG, Frishman LJ (1995) Response linearity and kinetics of the cat retina: the bipolar-cell component of the dark-adapted electroretinaogram. Vis Neurosci 12:3253–3268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Knapp AC, Schiller PH (1984) The contribution of on-bipolar cells to the electroretinogram of rabbits and monkeys. A study using 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (APB). Vis Res 24:1841–1846PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gurevich L, Slaughter MM (1993) Comparison of the waveforms of the ON bipolar neuron and the b-wave of the electroretinogram. Vis Res 33:2431–2435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stockton RA, Slaughter MM (1989) The b-wave of the electroretinogram: a reflection of ON bipolar cell activity. J Gen Physiol 93:101–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hongling Chen
    • 1
  • Dezheng Wu
    • 1
  • Shizhou Huang
    • 1
  • Hong Yan
    • 1
  1. 1.Zhongshan Ophthalmic CenterState Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouPR China

Personalised recommendations