Advertisement

Documenta Ophthalmologica

, Volume 109, Issue 1, pp 17–33 | Cite as

Effects of restricted spectral rearing on the development of zebrafish retinal physiology

  • Lee J. Dixon
  • Angela L. McDowell
  • Jennifer D. Houchins
  • Joseph Bilotta
Article

Abstract

Research has shown that rearing in abnormal lighting environments affects both visual behavior and retinal physiology in zebrafish larvae. These studies, however, used only constant dark and constant white light as the experimental rearing conditions. This study assessed the effects of rearing larvae in restricted spectral lighting environments on zebrafish retinal physiology. Larvae were reared in one of seven different lighting environments: cyclic white light (control group), constant blue light, constant green light, constant orange light, cyclic blue light, cyclic green light, and cyclic orange light. Assessment of retinal physiology was done using the electroretinogram (ERG). Results showed that rearing larvae in constant light conditions caused deficits in sensitivity to ultraviolet- and short-wavelength stimuli, but had little effect on sensitivity to middle- and long-wavelength stimuli. Rearing larvae in cyclic light did not cause differences in sensitivity to middle- and long-wavelength stimuli, but did cause extreme deficits in sensitivity to ultraviolet- and short-wavelength stimuli in the cyclic green and orange light-rearing conditions. Sensitivity of the cyclic blue light-rearing group was similar to the control group to stimuli of all wavelengths. The results support the notion that the light-rearing environment impacts the development of the ultraviolet- and short-wavelength cone mechanisms but has little impact on the development of the middle- and long-wavelength cone mechanisms; these effects coincide with the development of the various cone types. This study supports the notion that the zebrafish is a viable model for studying the effects of the lighting environment on visual development.

abnormal light rearing electroretinogram ERG retinal development zebrafish 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abramov I, Hainline L, eds. Light and the develop-ing visual system, Vol. 16, Macmillan, London: 1991: 104–32.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harwerth RS, Sperling HG. Effects of intense visible radiation on the increment-threshold spectral sensitivity of the rhesus monkey eye. Vis Res 1975; 15: 1193–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bilotta J. Effects of abnormal lighting on the develop-ment of zebrafish visual behavior. Behavior Brain Res 2000; 116: 81–7.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saszik S, Bilotta J. Effects of abnormal light-rearing con-ditions on retinal physiology in larvae zebrafish. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999; 40: 3026–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Robinson J, Dowling JE. Light rearing and development in zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci Suppl 1994; 35: 1512.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lyday TL. Effects of light levels on retinal development in Danio rerio. M. A. thesis, Developmental Biology, American University, Washington, D. C., 2001, p. 43.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bilotta J, Saszik S, DeLorenzo AS, Hardesty HR. Estab-lishing and maintaining a low-cost zebrafish breeding and behavioral research facility. Behav Res Meth In-strum Comput 1999; 31: 178–84.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Westerfield M. The Zebrafish book: a guide to the labo-ratory use of the zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio ). Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saszik S, Bilotta J, Givin CM. ERG assessment of zebrafi sh retinal development. Vis Neurosci 1999; 16: 881–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hughes A, Saszik S, Bilotta J, DeMarco PJ Jr, Patterson WF II. Cone contributions to the photopic spectral sen-sitivity of the zebrafish ERG. Vis Neurosci 1998; 15: 1029–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Palacios AG, Goldsmith TH, Bernard GD. Sensitivity of cones from a cyprinid fish (Danio aequipinnatus )to ultra-violet and visible light. Vis Neurosci 1996; 13: 411–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Robinson J, Schmitt EA, Harosi FI, Reece RJ, Dowling JE. Zebrafish ultraviolet visual pigment: Absorption spectrum, sequence, and localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993; 90: 6009–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Press WH, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT, Flannery BP. Numerical recipes in C: the art of scientific computing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saszik S, Alexander AL, Lawrence T, Bilotta J. APB dif-ferentially affects on the cone contributions to the zebra-fish ERG. Vis Neurosci 2002; 19: 521–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Branchek T, Bremiller R. The development of photore-ceptors in the zebrafish, Brachydanio rerio. I. Structure. J Comp Neurol 1984; 224: 107–15.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Novales-Flamarique H, Hawryshyn C. Ultraviolet pho-toreception contributes to prey search behaviour in two species of zooplanktivorous fishes. J Exp Biol 1994; 186: 187–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    DeMarco PJ Jr, Powers MK. Spectral sensitivity of ON and OFF responses from the optic nerve of goldfish. Vis Neurosci 1991; 6: 207–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    McDowell AL, Houchins J, Dixon LJ, Bilotta J. Visual processing of the zebrafish optic tectum before and after optic nerve damage. Vis Neurosci 2004; 21: 97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wheeler TG, Retinal ON and OFF responses convey dif-ferent chromatic information to the CNS. Brain Res 1979; 160: 145–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vistamehr S, Tian N. Light deprivation suppresses the light response of inner retina in both young and adult mouse. Vis Neurosci 2004; 21: 23–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Organisciak DT, Winkler BS. Retinal light damage: practical and theoretical considerations. Prog Retinal Eye Res 1994; 13: 1–29.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kroger RHH, Wagner H-J. Horizontal cell spinule dynamics in fish are affected by rearing in monochro-matic light. Vis Res 1996; 36: 3879–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saszik S, Bilotta J. Constant dark-rearing effects on visual adaptation of the zebrafish ERG. Int J Develop Neurosci 2001; 19: 611–19.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raymond PA, Barthel LK, Curran GA. Developmental patterning of rod and cone photoreceptors in embryonic zebrafish. J Compar Neurol 1995; 359: 537–50.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schmitt EA, Hyatt GA, Dowling JE. Temporal and spa-tial patterns of opsin gene expression in the zebrafish (Danio rerio ): corrections with additions. Vis Neurosci 1999; 16: 601–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Neuhauss SCF, Biehlmaier O, Seeliger MW, Das T, Kohler K, Harris WA, Baier H. Genetic disorders of vision revealed by a behavioral screen of 400 essential loci in zebrafish. J Neurosci 1999; 19: 8603–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seeliger MW, Rilk A, Neuhauss SCF. Ganzfeld ERG in zebrafish larvae. Doc Ophthalmol 2002; 104: 57–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee J. Dixon
    • 1
    • 2
  • Angela L. McDowell
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jennifer D. Houchins
    • 1
  • Joseph Bilotta
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychology & Biotechnology CenterWestern Kentucky UniversityKY
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleTNUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyIndiana UniversityBloomingtonIN
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyWestern Kentucky UniversityKY

Personalised recommendations