Discrete Event Dynamic Systems

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 439–476 | Cite as

The evaluation of pedestrians’ behavior using M/G/C/C analytical, weighted distance and real distance simulation models

  • Ruzelan Khalid
  • Mohd. Kamal Mohd. Nawawi
  • Luthful A. Kawsar
  • Noraida A. Ghani
  • Anton A. Kamil
  • Adli Mustafa


M/G/C/C analytical and simulation models have long been used to evaluate the performance of a large and complex topological network. However, such evaluation is only founded on a network’s total arrival rate and its weighted distance. Thus, this paper discusses some concepts and issues in building an M/G/C/C simulation model of a complex geometric system where all its arrival sources and their exact distances to the end of their networks (i.e., corridors) have been taken into consideration in measuring the impacts of various evacuation rates to its throughput, blocking probability, expected service time and expected number of pedestrians. For this purpose, the Dewan Tuanku Syed Putra hall, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia has been selected as a case study for various evaluations of complex pedestrian flows. These results were analyzed and compared with the results of our analytical and weighted distance simulation models. We then documented the ranges of arrival rates for each of the model where their results exhibited significant discrepancies and suggest ideal rates to best evacuate occupants from the hall. Our model can be utilized by policy makers to recommend suitable actions especially in emergency cases and be modified to build and measure the performance of other real-life complex systems.


M/G/C/C state dependent Discrete-event simulation Queuing system Finite capacity Topological network 



This study was supported by the Research University (RU) Grant Scheme, [account number 1001/PJJAUH/811097], Universiti Sains Malaysia. We wish to thank Universiti Sains Malaysia for the financial support. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruzelan Khalid
    • 1
  • Mohd. Kamal Mohd. Nawawi
    • 1
  • Luthful A. Kawsar
    • 2
  • Noraida A. Ghani
    • 2
  • Anton A. Kamil
    • 2
  • Adli Mustafa
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Quantitative SciencesUniversiti Utara MalaysiaSintokMalaysia
  2. 2.School of Distance EducationUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia
  3. 3.School of Mathematical SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaGelugorMalaysia

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