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Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 63, Issue 5, pp 1102–1122 | Cite as

Contributions of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Gastroenterological Practice: MRIs for GIs

  • Christopher G. Roth
  • Dina Halegoua-De Marzio
  • Flavius F. Guglielmo
Paradigm Shifts in Perspective

Abstract

MRI has transformed from the theoretical, investigative realm to mainstream clinical medicine over the past four decades and has become a core component of the diagnostic toolbox in the practice of gastroenterology (GI). Its success is attributable to exquisite contrast and the ability to isolate specific proton species through the use of different pulse sequences (i.e., T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted) and exploiting extracellular and hepatobiliary contrast agents. Consequently, MRI has gained preeminence in various GI clinical applications: liver and pancreatic lesion evaluation and detection, liver transplantation evaluation, pancreatitis evaluation, Crohn’s disease evaluation (using MR enterography) rectal cancer staging and perianal fistula evaluation. MR elastography, in concert with technical innovations allowing for fat and iron quantification, provides a noninvasive approach, or “MRI virtual liver biopsy” for diagnosis and management of chronic liver diseases. In the future, the arrival of ultra-high-field MR systems (7 T) and the ability to perform magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the abdomen promise even greater diagnostic insight into chronic liver disease.

Keywords

Magnetic resonance imaging Elastography Enterography T1-weighted T2-weighted Diffusion-weighted Gadolinium Radiofrequency Liver Pancreas LI-RADS 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

Dr. Roth is an author for Elseiver and Dr. Halegoua-De Marzio receives grant/research support from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Conatus, Galectin, Genfit, Gilead, and Intercept and has been a consultant for Alexion, Gilead, and Intercept.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher G. Roth
    • 1
  • Dina Halegoua-De Marzio
    • 1
  • Flavius F. Guglielmo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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