Digestive Diseases and Sciences

, Volume 61, Issue 8, pp 2242–2251 | Cite as

Co-lyophilized Aspirin with Trehalose Causes Less Injury to Human Gastric Cells and Gastric Mucosa of Rats

  • Lee-Shuan Lin
  • Yuko Kayasuga-Kariya
  • Shugo Nakamura
  • Nobuyuki Shimohata
  • Takamasa Sakai
  • Ayano Fujisawa
  • Yuki Akagi
  • Shigeki Suzuki
  • Ung-il Chung
  • Nobuo Sasaki
  • Manabu Mochizuki
Original Article



Aspirin is one of the most popular NSAIDs worldwide because of its anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant effects, and however, gastrointestinal injury remains a major complication. We previously reported co-lyophilized aspirin/trehalose (Lyo A/T) decreased the aspirin-induced gastric lesions in dogs.


This study investigated the mechanism of gastroprotective effects of trehalose in vitro and in vivo.


The apoptotic assays were performed in a human gastric carcinoma cell line, which was treated with aspirin, mixed aspirin/trehalose (Mix A/T) or Lyo A/T. Gastric ulcer severity was examined after oral administration of drugs in rats. In addition, the mucosal tissue apoptotic status in drug-treated rats was evaluated. Molecular dynamics simulations and laser Raman spectroscopy were performed in order to examine the molecular properties of Lyo A/T.


DNA fragmentation was detected in AGS cells that were treated with aspirin and Mix A/T, but not in the Lyo A/T-treated cells. There were fewer apoptotic cells in the Lyo A/T-treated cells than in the other cells. Gastric injury was reduced in rats that received oral Lyo A/T compared with the others, while PGE2 synthesis was equally decreased in all groups. TUNEL assay and immunohistochemistry of cleaved caspase-3 in the mucosal tissues also revealed that Lyo A/T treatment induced less apoptosis than the others. The Lyo A/T spectrum showed clear differences in several Raman bands compared with that of Mix A/T.


Our data showed that co-lyophilization of aspirin with trehalose reduced gastric injury, potentially through suppression of aspirin-induced mucosal cell apoptosis while retaining its anti-inflammatory effects.


Aspirin Trehalose Lyophilization Gastroprotection Apoptosis 



We thank Tohru Kanke for his technical assistance. The present work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 21650105 and 25750156 and by the Platform Project for Supporting in Drug Discovery and Life Science Research from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee-Shuan Lin
    • 1
  • Yuko Kayasuga-Kariya
    • 2
  • Shugo Nakamura
    • 3
  • Nobuyuki Shimohata
    • 4
  • Takamasa Sakai
    • 2
  • Ayano Fujisawa
    • 2
  • Yuki Akagi
    • 2
  • Shigeki Suzuki
    • 5
  • Ung-il Chung
    • 2
  • Nobuo Sasaki
    • 6
  • Manabu Mochizuki
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary MedicineNational Pingtung University of Science and TechnologyNeipuTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of EngineeringThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life SciencesRitsumeikan UniversityKusatsuJapan
  5. 5.NEXT21 K.K.TokyoJapan
  6. 6.Department of Veterinary Medical Science, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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