Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Antegrade Treatments for Biliary Disorders in Patients with Surgically Altered Anatomy
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered anatomy is challenging. Several endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary access techniques have been reported as effective alternatives. EUS-guided antegrade treatments (AG) have been developed more recently but have not yet been studied well.
To evaluate the feasibility and safety of EUS-AG for biliary disorders in patients with surgically altered anatomies.
We retrospectively identified all the patients who underwent EUS-AG. The left intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) was initially punctured from the intestine followed by cholangiography, antegrade guidewire manipulation, and bougie dilation of the fistula. Either antegrade biliary stenting (ABS) or antegrade balloon dilation (ABD) was performed depending on the biliary disorders. In stone cases, the stones were antegradely pushed out using a balloon. After ABD, a nasobiliary drainage tube was placed to prevent possible bile leak and to keep an access route for any possible repeat procedures.
EUS-AG was attempted in seven patients including choledocholithiasis in five, malignant biliary obstruction in one, and bilioenteric anastomosis stricture in one. EUS-AG was not performed in one patient because EUS-cholangiography did not indicate the presence of stones. In the remaining six patients, the IHBD was successfully punctured, followed by cholangiography, guidewire insertion, and bougie dilation. ABS and ABD were successfully performed in one and five patients, respectively. Antegrade procedures with ABD were repeated twice in one patient. Mild complications were observed in two patients.
EUS-AG for biliary disorders in patients with surgically altered anatomy is feasible. Further studies are warranted.
KeywordsEndoscopic ultrasound Antegrade treatments CBD stone Surgically altered anatomy Biliary access
Conflict of interest
Supplementary material 1 (WMV 11,104 kb)