Safety of Capsule Endoscopy Using Human Body Communication in Patients with Cardiac Devices
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The MiroCam (IntroMedic, Ltd., Seoul, Korea) is a small-bowel capsule endoscope that uses human body communication to transmit data. The potential interactions between cardiac devices and the capsule endoscope are causes for concern, but no data are available for this matter.
This clinical study was designed to evaluate the potential influence of the MiroCam capsules on cardiac devices.
Patients with cardiac pacemakers or implantable cardiac defibrillators referred for evaluation of small bowel disease were prospectively enrolled in this study. Before capsule endoscopy, a cardiologist checked baseline electrocardiograms and functions of the cardiac devices. Cardiac rhythms were continuously monitored by 24-h telemetry during capsule endoscopy in the hospital. After completion of procedures, functions of the cardiac devices were checked again for interference. Images from the capsule endoscopy were reviewed and analyzed for technical problems.
Six patients, three with pacemakers and three with implantable cardiac defibrillators, were included in the study. We identified no disturbances in the cardiac devices and no arrhythmias detected on telemetry monitoring during capsule endoscopy. No significant changes in the programmed parameters of the cardiac devices were noted after capsule endoscopy. There were no imaging disturbances from the cardiac devices on capsule endoscopy.
Capsule endoscopy using human body communication to transmit data was safely performed in patients with cardiac pacemakers or implantable cardiac defibrillators. Images from the capsule endoscopy were not affected by cardiac devices. A further large-scale study is required to confirm the safety of capsule endoscopy with various types of cardiac devices.
KeywordsCapsule endoscopy Human body communication Cardiac pacemaker Implantable cardiac defibrillator
Conflict of interest
None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to disclose.
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