The area of constrained clustering has been extensively explored by researchers and used by practitioners. Constrained clustering formulations exist for popular algorithms such as k-means, mixture models, and spectral clustering but have several limitations. A fundamental strength of deep learning is its flexibility, and here we explore a deep learning framework for constrained clustering and in particular explore how it can extend the field of constrained clustering. We show that our framework can not only handle standard together/apart constraints (without the well documented negative effects reported earlier) generated from labeled side information but more complex constraints generated from new types of side information such as continuous values and high-level domain knowledge. Furthermore, we propose an efficient training paradigm that is generally applicable to these four types of constraints. We validate the effectiveness of our approach by empirical results on both image and text datasets. We also study the robustness of our framework when learning with noisy constraints and show how different components of our framework contribute to the final performance. Our source code is available at: http://github.com/blueocean92.
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We acknowledge support for this work from a Google Gift entitled: “Combining Symbolic Reasoning and Deep Learning”.
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Zhang, H., Zhan, T., Basu, S. et al. A framework for deep constrained clustering. Data Min Knowl Disc 35, 593–620 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10618-020-00734-4
- Constrained clustering
- Deep learning
- Representation learning
- Semi-supervised learning