, Volume 70, Issue 6, pp 1643–1654 | Cite as

Optimization of macrophage isolation from the Persian sturgeon and the Caspian kutum fish: a comparative study

  • Sara Rastgar
  • Abdolali MovahediniaEmail author
  • Negin Salamat
  • Amirparviz Salati
  • Ebrahim Zabihi
Original Article


The aim of this research was a comparative study on the isolation and culture of head kidney macrophages derived from Acipenser persicous and Rutilus frisii kutum as teleost and chondrostei species of fish. The macrophages were isolated by density gradient sedimentation, followed by adherence to a plastic surface. They exhibited strong phagocytic activity against bacteria. The effect of cell density, incubation time, FBS percentage, pH and temperatures on the cell number and viability were determined and compared. Also, the effect of light/dark regimen on viability, adherence, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) in the macrophages was determined. The results showed that the Caspian kutum macrophages were more sensitive to FBS percentage and cell density whereas the Persian sturgeon macrophages were more sensitive to pH of the cell culture media. The adherence and viability of the macrophages from both fish species firstly increased (P < 0.05) after exposure to a light/dark regimen, but then significantly decreased as did ROS and NO productions. For the first time, this study has determined the optimal conditions for primary culture of macrophages derived from sturgeons, and shows the unique effect of light on the biology of fish immune cells.


Fish macrophages Light exposure Primary culture 



The author thanks Professor Christopher Secombes, Head of the Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre at University of Aberdeen, and also Dr. Rashid Alijani Ardeshir for helping on experimental work and edition on the manuscript, and also Babol University of Medical Sciences for providing instruments.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no potential or actual conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine SciencesKhorramshahr University of Marine Science and TechnologyKhorramshahrIran
  2. 2.Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine SciencesUniversity of MazandaranBabolsarIran
  3. 3.Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Marine Natural ResourcesKhoramshahr University of MarineKhorramshahrIran
  4. 4.Cellular and Molecular Biology Research Center, Health Research InstituteBabol University of Medical SciencesBabolIran

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