Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of copper oxychloride in cultured human lymphocytes using cytogenetic and molecular tests
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The genotoxicity of copper oxychloride was investigated in human lymphocytes using chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests and the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction technique. The lymphocytes were treated with 3, 6, and 12 µg/mL of copper oxychloride for 24 and 48 h. Copper oxychloride increased CA and abnormal cells in a dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN and micronucleated binuclear cells also increased at all concentrations and treatment periods. However, copper oxychloride cytotoxicity, observed through lower mitotic and nuclear division index, was significantly lower only at the higher concentrations (6 and 12 µg/mL). Copper oxychloride increased the polymorphic bands and decreased genomic template stability. In conclusion, in this study it was confirmed that copper oxychloride has genotoxic potential for human lymphocytes in vitro. Additionally, caution is advised for its use as a fungicide, because it may increase the risk of exposure through the food chain.
KeywordsCopper oxychloride Genotoxicity Chromosome aberration Micronucleus RAPD-PCR
This study was supported by the Adiyaman University Research Fund (Grant No. FEFBAP/2013-0001). The authors wish to thank Dr. Muhsin Aydin and Mr. Dado Čakalo for language advice and editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no declaration of interest.
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