Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of copper oxychloride in cultured human lymphocytes using cytogenetic and molecular tests
- 268 Downloads
The genotoxicity of copper oxychloride was investigated in human lymphocytes using chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests and the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction technique. The lymphocytes were treated with 3, 6, and 12 µg/mL of copper oxychloride for 24 and 48 h. Copper oxychloride increased CA and abnormal cells in a dose-dependent manner. The frequency of MN and micronucleated binuclear cells also increased at all concentrations and treatment periods. However, copper oxychloride cytotoxicity, observed through lower mitotic and nuclear division index, was significantly lower only at the higher concentrations (6 and 12 µg/mL). Copper oxychloride increased the polymorphic bands and decreased genomic template stability. In conclusion, in this study it was confirmed that copper oxychloride has genotoxic potential for human lymphocytes in vitro. Additionally, caution is advised for its use as a fungicide, because it may increase the risk of exposure through the food chain.
KeywordsCopper oxychloride Genotoxicity Chromosome aberration Micronucleus RAPD-PCR
This study was supported by the Adiyaman University Research Fund (Grant No. FEFBAP/2013-0001). The authors wish to thank Dr. Muhsin Aydin and Mr. Dado Čakalo for language advice and editing.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors report no declaration of interest.
- Hloch O, Charvát J (2012) Acute copper poisoning by suicidal attempt. Vnitr Lek 58:25–328Google Scholar
- Kocaman AY, Topaktaş M (2010) Genotoxic effects of a particular mixture of acetamiprid and alpha-cypermethrin on chromosome aberration, sister chromatid exchange, and micronucleus formation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Environ Toxicol 25:157–168Google Scholar
- La Pera L, Dugo G, Rando R, Di Bella G, Maisano R, Salvo F (2008) Statistical study of the influence of fungicide treatments (mancozeb, zoxamide and copper oxychloride) on heavy metal concentrations in Sicilian red wine. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 25:302–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Madle S, Beek B, Nowak C (1993) Zum Verständnis von chromosomenmutationstests an somazellen. [The understanding of chromosome and somatic cell mutation test]. In: Fahrig R (ed) Mutationsforschung und genetische toxikologie [Mutation research and genetic toxicology]. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt, pp 224–242Google Scholar
- Pirtskhelani AG, Pirtskhelani NA, Gakhokidze RA, Bichikashvili NV, Kalandiia EA (2008) The influence of polyvitamin complex polijen on mutagenic and cytotoxic effect of copper oxychloride in white mice. Georgian Med News 159:44–47Google Scholar
- Rencuzogullari E, Ila HB, Kayraldiz A, Arslan M, Diler SB, Topaktas M (2004) The genotoxic effect of the new acaricide etoxazole. Genetika 40:1571–1575Google Scholar
- Vock EH, Lutz WK, Hormes P, Hoffmann HD, Vamvakas S (1998) Discrimination between genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in the induction of DNA double-strand breaks in cells treated with etoposide, melphalan, cisplatin, potassium cyanide, Triton X-100 and c-irradiation. Mutat Res 413:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WHO (1974) Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers and thickening agents. Seventeenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, World Health Organization technical rep ser no. 539; FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, 53Google Scholar