, Volume 68, Issue 5, pp 1705–1715 | Cite as

A novel in vitro model of sarcopenia using BubR1 hypomorphic C2C12 myoblasts

  • Takateru Nozaki
  • Shiori Nikai
  • Ryo Okabe
  • Kiyoko Nagahama
  • Nozomu Eto
Original Article


Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with adverse outcomes that include physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. The detailed molecular mechanisms remain unknown. An in vitro muscle atrophy model is needed to enable mechanistic studies. To create such a model, we employed BubR1 insufficiency which causes premature ageing in mice. Using C2C12 cells, a recognized in vitro model of the skeletal muscle cell, we obtained the BubR1 hypomorphic C2C12 (C2C12BKD) cells by using shRNA. The resulting C2C12BKD cells displayed several characteristics of the sarcopenic muscle cell. In C2C12BKD cells, formation of myotubes, assessed by analysis of fusion index, was markedly reduced as was the expression of myogenin and MyoD, two marker genes for myogenesis. Moreover, the cells showed increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, indicating increased protein degradation through the ubiquitin–proteasome dependent proteolytic pathway. These results suggest that C2C12BKD cells are potentially useful as a novel in vitro model of sarcopenia.


Sarcopenia BubR1 hypomorphic C2C12 Myogenic differentiation Muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases 



We thank Dr. Tomoya Kono for his expertise in qRT-PCR. We also thank Dr. Tomonori Nakanishi and Dr. Masao Yamasaki for helpful discussions.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10616_2015_9920_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.8 mb)
Supplementary material 1 Bright-field images of SA-β-galactosidase activity. Cells were seeded at equivalent densities (3.0×105 cells per dish) onto 35-mm dishes (107.7 PDL). After 24 hr, cells were stained for SA-β-galactosidase as described in Materials and methods. Neither cell exhibited positive staining. The size of the scale bar is 100 μm(DOCX 2873 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takateru Nozaki
    • 1
  • Shiori Nikai
    • 1
  • Ryo Okabe
    • 1
  • Kiyoko Nagahama
    • 2
  • Nozomu Eto
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Applied Biosciences, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and EngineeringUniversity of MiyazakiMiyazakiJapan

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