Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of butyl cyclohexyl phthalate
- 265 Downloads
Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCP) is frequently used in personal care products, medical and household applications. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate possible cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of BCP using in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of BCP was investigated on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929 cells) by MTT assay. The result showed that BCP inhibits cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value = 0.29 µg/mL). For genotoxicity assessment, tested concentrations of BCP demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of S9 mix with the Salmonella strain TA100 in the Ames test. Results showed that BCP is a secondary mutagenic substance even in low concentrations. The data obtained from 28-days repeated toxicity tests on mice revealed that BCP caused abnormalities of chromosome number, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA damage, particularly DNA strand breaks, was assessed by Comet assay. The test result shows that BCP seemed to have genotoxic potential at a high level of exposure.
KeywordsButyl cyclohexyl phthalate Cytotoxicity Genotoxicity Mutagenicity Chromosome aberration
The study is supported by Ege University, Faculty of Science (Project Number is 2010/FEN/018).
Conflict of interest
The authors have declared that they have is no conflict of interest.
- Adler ID (1984) Cytogenetic tests in mammals. In: Venitt S, Parry JM (eds) Mutagenicity testing, a practical approach. IRL Press, Oxford, pp 275–306Google Scholar
- Ahbab MA, Undeger U, Barlas N, Basaran N (2014) In utero exposure to dicyclohexyl and di-n-hexyl phthalate possess genotoxic effects on testicular cells of male rats after birth in the comet and TUNEL assays. Hum Exp Toxicol 33:230–239Google Scholar
- HSDB Hazardous Substance Data Bank (2011) http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB
- Collins AR, Dusinska A (2009) Applications of the comet assay in human biomonitoring, chap 9. In: Dhawan A, Anderson D (eds) The comet assay in toxicology. The Royal Society of Chemistry Press, Cambridge, pp 201–219Google Scholar
- Committee on the Health Risks of Phthalates, National Research Council (2008) Phthalates and cumulative risk assessment: the task ahead. National Academies Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Fujii J, Luchi Y, Matsuki S, Ishii T (2003) Cooperative function of antioxidant and redox systems against oxidative stress in male reproductive tissue. Asian J Androl 5:231–242Google Scholar
- Hauser R, Meeker JD, Singh NP, Silva MJ, Ryan L, Duty S, Calafat AM (2007) DNA damage in human sperm is related to urinary levels of phthalate monoester and oxidative metabolites. Hum Reprod 22:688–695Google Scholar
- IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer (2011) http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Preamble/CurrentPreamble.pdf
- Karabay Yavasoglu NU, Köksal C, Dagdeviren M, Aktug H, Yavasoglu A (2014) Induction of oxidative stress and histological changes in liver by subacute doses of butyl cyclohexyl phthalate. Environ Toxicol 29:345–353Google Scholar
- MSDS (2010) Material safety data sheet for butyl cyclohexyl phthalate. Chemical Service Inc., West ChesterGoogle Scholar
- OECD 407 (1995) Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
- OECD 425 (2001) Acute oral toxicity: up-and-down procedure. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Silva MJ, Barr DB, Reidy JA, Malek NA, Hodge CC, Caudill SP, Brock JW, Needham LL, Calafat AM (2004) Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the US population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2000. Environ Health Perspect 112:331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tice RR, Agurell E, Anderson D, Burlinson B, Hartmann A, Kobayashi H, Miyamae Y, Rojas E, Ryu JC, Sasaki YF (2000) Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing. Environ Mol Mutagen 35:206–221Google Scholar