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Cytotechnology

, Volume 65, Issue 5, pp 851–862 | Cite as

Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract

  • Hanaa A. HassanEmail author
  • Ahmed M. Isa
  • Wafaa M. El-Kholy
  • Samar E. Nour
Original Research

Abstract

The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig’s cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

Keywords

Plant growth regulators Gibberellic acid Indoleacetic acid Proanthocyanidin Grape seed extract 

Abbreviations

PGRs

Plant growth regulators

GA3

Gibberellic acid

IAA

Indoleacetic acid

PAC

Proanthocyanidin

TL

Total lipids

TC

Total cholesterol

TG

Triglycerides

PL

Phospholipids

LDL-C

Low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol

HDL-C

High-density-lipoprotein cholesterol

TP

Total protein

ALP

Alkaline phosphatase

ACP

Acid phosphatase

γ-GT

Gamma-glutamyl transferase

MDA

Malondialdehyde

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

TAC

Total antioxidant capacity

GSH

Glutathione

SH

Sulphahydryl

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

G6PD

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hanaa A. Hassan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmed M. Isa
    • 2
  • Wafaa M. El-Kholy
    • 1
  • Samar E. Nour
    • 1
  1. 1.Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of ScienceMansoura UniversityMansouraEgypt
  2. 2.Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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