Atorvastatin neutralises the thrombin-induced tissue factor expresion in endothelial cells via geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate
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Statins may have beneficial effects in atherogenesis given their antithrombotic properties involving non-lipid mechanisms that modify endothelial function of tissue factor induction by thrombin. In this study, we investigate the effect of atorvastatin on tissue factor (TF) activity in thrombin-stimulated endothelial cells and its regulation through mevalonate or its derivatives. First subculture of human umbilical endothelial cells was used for this study. Cells were treated with thrombin and atorvastatin for different time intervals and dosage. Tissue factor activity was measured as Factor Xa generation induced by Tissue Factor-Factor VIIa complex on confluent cells. Our results show that atorvastatin prevents the thrombin-induced up-regulation of tissue factor activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate reversed this inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on tissue factor activity, while the presence of farnesyl pyrophosphate did not prevent the atorvastatin effect on thrombin-induced tissue factor activity. Rho-kinase inhibitor did not affect the thrombin stimulation of tissue factor activity. High amount of hydrophobic isoprenoid groups decreases the thrombin-induced TF activity and may promote endothelial cell anti-thrombotic action. Rho kinase pathways do not have a major role in the thrombin-mediated TF activity. The inhibitory effect of atorvastatin on thrombin-induced TF activity was partially reversed by MVA and GGPP but not FPP.
KeywordsAtorvastatin Tissue factor Thrombin Endothelial cells Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate
The authors thank Guadalupe Manzano and Josefa Llorens for their technical assistance in the performance of the experiments.
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