, Volume 59, Issue 2, pp 113–119 | Cite as

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite on human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro



Chlorination is widely used method in the disinfection of drinking and utility water worldwide. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite were investigated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration analysis on human peripheral lymphocytes in vitro. A significant increase in chromosomal aberration frequency was observed in all treatments of NaOCl (0.030, 0.065, 0.100, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 μg/mL) at 24 and 48 h compared with the negative control and mitomycin C (MMC, 0.3 μg/mL), which was used as a positive control. NaOCl significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei in a dose dependent manner. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between NaOCl concentration and chromosomal aberration, micronuclei frequency, necrotic cells, apoptotic cells and binucleated cells.


Sodium hypochlorite Chromosomal aberrations (CA) Micronucleus (MN) assay Necrotic cell Apoptotic cell 


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© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and ArtsUniversity of KafkasKarsTurkey

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