Advertisement

Critical Criminology

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 43–66 | Cite as

The Criminalization of Aliens: Regulating Foreigners

  • Pamela Preston
  • Michael P. Perez
Article

Abstract

Intergroup contact and conflict is inevitable in the context of global economic competition and geopolitical interests. Immigrant and migratory groups have particularly been subjected to unequal treatment by members of dominant host groups, generally as a means of promoting and protecting their own economic and political interests. Immigrants often serve as a dependent and secondary labor force, useful within fluctuating cycles of labor shortage, economic crises, and economic prosperity. Likewise, criminalization is one tool that perpetuates notions of “otherness,” which in turn maintains immigrant minorities as a secondary labor force; and justifies penal punishment of them. For instance, in the United States, Chicanos and Mexican immigrants have been exploited as secondary labor, and have also been more likely than many other groups to be swept up in the Criminal Justice System. Drawing on neo-Marxist perspectives and postcolonial notions of “otherness”, this paper examines the relationship between incarceration of foreigners and economic conditions, economic threat, population change, and otherness. As hypothesized, country level data suggests that factors such as a free market economy, population change, economic competition, and a concentration of immigrants in the population are related to the level of imprisonment of foreigners. Implications for further research are also discussed.

Keywords

Criminal Justice System Population Change Migratory Group Labor Shortage Mexican Immigrant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aguirre, A., Baker, D.V. 1994Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity in American Criminal JusticeWest Publishing CompanyNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlberg, J. (1996). Criminality amongst immigrants and children of immigrants. BRA Report 1996:2Google Scholar
  3. Albrecht, H-J. 1997Ethnic minorities, crime, and criminal justice in GermanyMichael,  T. eds. Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National PerspectivesUniversity of Chicago PressChicago, IL3199Google Scholar
  4. Albrecht, H-J. (1997). Minorities, crime and criminal justice in the Federal Republic of Germany. In I.H. Marshall (ed.), Minorities, Migrants and Crime. : Sage Publications, pp. 86–109.Google Scholar
  5. Ashcroft, B., Gareth, G., Tiffin, H. 1995Ethnicity and Indigeneity: Introduction. The Postcolonial Studies ReaderRoutledgeNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Becker, H.S. 1963Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of DevianceThe Free PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Berk, Richard A., Western, Bruce, Weiss, Robert E. 1995Statistical Inference for Apparent PopulationsSociological Methodology25421458Google Scholar
  8. Blauner, R. 1972Racial Oppression in AmericaHarper and RowNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonacich, E. 1973A theory of middleman minoritiesAmerican Sociological Review38583594Google Scholar
  10. Bonacich, E. 1972A theory of ethnic antagonism: The split labor marketAmerican Sociological Review37547559Google Scholar
  11. Bonacich, E., Cheng, L. 1984Labor Immigration Under Capitalism: Asian Workers in the United States Before World War II University of California PressBerkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  12. Bosworth, M. 2004Theorizing race and imprisonment: Towards a new penaltyCritical Criminology12221242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brubaker, R. 1992Citizenship and Nationhood in France and GermanyHarvard University PressCambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  14. CIA World Factbook, (2001). [Online]. Available: http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html
  15. Engbersen, G., Joanne, L. 2001The social construction of illegality and criminalityEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research95170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fanon, F. 1961 The Wretched of the EarthGrove PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Feagin, J.R. and Feagin, C.B. (1999). Racial and Ethnic Relations, 6th edition. Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  18. FitzGerald, M. (1997). Minorities, crime, and criminal justice in Britain. In I.H. Marshall (ed.), Minorities, Migrants and Crime. Sage Publications, pp. 36–61.Google Scholar
  19. Fregoso, R.L. 1990The discourse of difference: Footnoting inequalityCritica2.2192187Google Scholar
  20. Friman, H.R. 2001Informal economies, immigrant entrepreneurship, and drug crime in JapanJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studies27313333Google Scholar
  21. Garcia-Espana, R.B.E. (1997). Minorities, crime and criminal justice in Spain. In I.H. Marshall (ed.), Minorities, Migrants and Crime. Sage Publications, pp. 86–109.Google Scholar
  22. Goodey, J. 2000Non-EU citizens’ experiences of offending and victimisation: the case for comparative European researchEuropean Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice81334Google Scholar
  23. Guiterrez-Jones, C. 1995Rethinking the Borderlands: Between Chicano Culture and Legal DiscourseUniversity of California PressBerkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  24. Hargreaves, A.G. 1998Algerians in contemporary France: Incorporation of inclusion?The Journal of Algerian Studies33147Google Scholar
  25. Holmberg, L., Kyvsgaard, B. 2003Are immigrants and their descendants discriminated against in the Danish criminal justice system?Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention4125142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ILO (1994). The Work of Strangers: A Survey of International Labour Migration. Geneve: International Labour OfficeGoogle Scholar
  27. Jackson, P.I. (1997). Minorities, crime and criminal justice in France. In I.H. Marshall (ed.), Minorities, Migrants and Crime. Sage Publications, pp. 130–149.Google Scholar
  28. Junger M. (1990). Delinquency and ethnicity: an investigation of social factors relating to delinquency among Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese and Dutch boysGoogle Scholar
  29. Junger Tas, J. 1997Ethnic minorities and criminal justice in the NetherlandsTonry,  M. eds. Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National PerspectivesUniversity of Chicago PressChicago, IL257310Google Scholar
  30. Junger Tas, J. 2001Ethnic minorities, social integration and crimeEuropean Journal on Criminal Policy and Research9529Google Scholar
  31. Kennedy, R. 1997Race, Crime and the LawVintage BooksNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Mann, C.R., Zatz, M.S. 1998Images of Color, Images of Crime: ReadingsRoxbury Publishing CompanyLos Angeles, CAGoogle Scholar
  33. Marshall, I.H. 1997Minorities Migrants, and CrimeSage PublicationsThousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  34. Memmi, A. 1965The Colonizer and the ColonizedOrion PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Mirande, A. 1985Gringo JusticeUniversity of Notre Dame PressNotre DameGoogle Scholar
  36. Nelson, C., Treichler, P.A., Grossberg, L. 1992Cultural StudiesRoutledgeNew York and LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Omi, M., Howard, W. 1994 Racial Formation in the United States: from the 1960s to the 1990sRoutledgeNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Preston, Pamela, and Perez, Michael P. (2003). A comparative analysis of criminalization and immigrants: The cases of France, Germany, Japan, and Spain. Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  39. Quinney, R. 1975CriminologyLittle BrownBoston, MAGoogle Scholar
  40. Quinney, R. 1980Class State and CrimeLongmanNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  41. Reiman, J. 2001The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison: Ideology, Class, and Criminal JusticeAllyn and BaconNeedham Heights, MAGoogle Scholar
  42. Said, E. 1979OrientalismVintage BooksNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Sakakibara, E. 1995Towards Alternative Models of CapitalismInternationale Politik und Gessellschaft4394398(abstract)Google Scholar
  44. Smith, D.J. 1997Ethnic origins, crime, and criminal justice in England and WalesTonry, M. eds. Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration: Comparative and Cross-National PerspectivesUniversity of Chicago PressChicago, IL101182Google Scholar
  45. Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. 1986The social identity theory of intergroup relationsWorchel, S.Austin, W.G. eds. psychokogyof Intergroup RelationsNelson Hall PublishersChicagoGoogle Scholar
  46. Oudenhoven, J.P., Willemson, T.M. 1989 Ethnic Minorities: Social Psychological PerspectivesSwets North AmericaBerwyn, PAGoogle Scholar
  47. Vazsonvi, A.T., Killias, M. 2001Immigration and crime among youth in SwitzerlandCriminal Justice and Behavior An International Journal28329366Google Scholar
  48. Wacquant, L. 1999Suitable Enemies: foreigners and immigrants in the prisons in EuropePunishment and Society1215222Google Scholar
  49. Walker, S., Spohn, C., DeLone, M. 2000The Color of Justice: Race Ethnicity and Crime in America2WadsworthBelmont, CAGoogle Scholar
  50. Wolfgang H. (1996). Foreign workers and law enforcement in JapanGoogle Scholar
  51. Yeager, M.G. 1997Immigrants and criminality: a cross-national reviewCriminal Justice Abstracts29143171Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pamela Preston
    • 1
  • Michael P. Perez
    • 2
  1. 1.Criminal Justice ProgramPenn State UniversitySchuylkill HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyCalifornia State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations