Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp 159–170 | Cite as

Friedman economic policies, social exclusion, and crime: toward a gendered left realist subcultural theory



Left realists contend that people lacking legitimate means of solving the problem of relative deprivation may come into contact with other frustrated disenfranchised people and form subcultures, which in turn, encourage criminal behaviors. Absent from this theory is an attempt to address how, today, subcultural development in North America and elsewhere is heavily shaped simultaneously by the recent destructive consequences of right-wing Friedman or Chicago School economic policies and marginalized men’s attempts to live up to the principles of hegemonic masculinity. The purpose of this paper, then, is to offer a new left realist theory that emphasizes the contribution of these two key determinants.


Public Housing Relative Deprivation Woman Abuse Progressive Scholar Hegemonic Masculinity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Criminology, Justice and Policy StudiesUniversity of Ontario Institute of TechnologyOshawaCanada
  2. 2.Department of SociologyOhio UniversityAthensUSA

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