Using Police Reports to Monitor Money Laundering Developments. Continuity and Change in 12 Years of Dutch Money Laundering Crime Pattern Analyses

Article

Abstract

This article is based on 4 Dutch Crime Pattern Analyses on money laundering reports. These reports are part of a four-yearly cycle that provides a periodic overview on organized crime in the Netherlands. The reports cover a time span of 12 years, starting from 2004 till 2016. During this time period, stricter anti-money laundering laws and more awareness of, and subsequently, attention to the profits of organized crime, had led to a growing number of confiscations and convictions for money laundering. Although the Crime Pattern Analyses on money laundering reports are unsuitable to study displacement effects or other situational changes (lacking precise data), they are useful as a tool for comparison and further policy research. Findings show that several changes in money laundering methods and new types of facilitators did occur. Technology is the biggest driver behind the identified changes. However, it also turns out that over the years the same money laundering methods keep returning. In such cases, no innovation was found. Even with the advent of digital opportunities and crypto currencies, cash was still extensively used. The continuity in money laundering methods suggests that the risk of detection is quite low or the consequences are negligible.

Keywords

Money laundering Organized crime Situational crime prevention 

References

  1. Algemene Rekenkamer. (2013). Bestrijden witwassen: stand van zaken 2013. Den Haag: Algemene Rekenkamer.Google Scholar
  2. Boerman, F., Grapendaal, M., Nieuwenhuis, F., & Stoffers, E. (2017). Nationaal dreigingsbeeld 2017: Georganiseerde criminaliteit. Driebergen: Dienst Landelijke Informatieorganisatie.Google Scholar
  3. Bullock, K., Clarke, R. V., & Tilley, N. (Eds.). (2010). Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  4. Europol. (2015). Why is cash still king? A strategic report on the use of cash by criminal groups as a facilitator for money laundering. The Hague: Europol.Google Scholar
  5. FATF. (2003). 40 Recommendations. Paris: Financial Action Task Force (FATF).Google Scholar
  6. FATF. (2008). Best practices paper on Trade Based Money Laundering. Paris: Financial Action Task Force (FATF).Google Scholar
  7. FATF. (2012). The FATF recommendations: International standards on combating money laundering and the financing of terrorism & proliferation. Paris: Financial Action Task Force (FATF).Google Scholar
  8. FATF/IMF. (2011). The Netherlands: Mutual Evaluation Report (Mutual Evaluation Report): Paris: Financial Action Task Force - International Monetary Fund.Google Scholar
  9. FATF/MENAFATF. (2015). Money laundering through the physical transportation of cash: Financial Action Task Force/Middle East & North Africa Financial Action Task Force.Google Scholar
  10. FATF/OECD. (2013). The role of hawala and other similar service providers in money laundering and terrorist financing: Financial Action Task Force/The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development.Google Scholar
  11. Guerette, R., & Bowers, K. T. (2009). Assessing the Extent of Crime Displacement and Diffusion of Benefits: A Review of Situational Crime Prevention Evaluations. Criminology, 47(4), 1331–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haenen, M., & Meeus, T.-J. (1996, 23-03-1996). Een nationale commotie had ik nooit verwacht. NRC Handelsblad.Google Scholar
  13. Haenen, M. (2015, 1 oktober 2015). Politiebaas Bouman weg om worstelingen met reorganisatie. NRC Handelsblad.Google Scholar
  14. Kleemans, E. R., Brienen, M. E. I., van de Bunt, H. G., Kouwenberg, R. F., Paulides, G., & Barendsen, J. (2002). Georganiseerde criminaliteit in Nederland: Tweede rapportage op basis van de WODC-monitor. Den Haag: WODC.Google Scholar
  15. Kleemans, E. R., Van den Berg, E. A. I. M., Van de Bunt, H. G., Brouwers, M., Kouwenberg, R. F., & Paulides, G. (1998). Georganiseerde criminaliteit in Nederland. Rapportage op basis van de WODC-monitor. Den Haag: WODC.Google Scholar
  16. KLPD/DNR. (2005). Criminaliteitsbeeld witwassen (Report). Driebergen: Korps Landelijke Politiediensten/Dienst Nationale Recherche.Google Scholar
  17. Kruisbergen, E. W., Kleemans, E. R., & Kouwenberg, R. F. (2014). Profitability, Power, or Proximity? Organized Crime Offenders Investing Their Money in Legal Economy. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 21(2), 237–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kruisbergen, E. W., van de Bunt, H. G., Kleemans, E. R., Kouwenberg, R. F., Huisman, K., Meerts, C. A., & de Jong, D. (2012). Fourth Report of the Organized Crime Monitor: Summary. Den Haag: Boom Lemma.Google Scholar
  19. Lammers, J., Bloem, B., Bottenberg, M., Ketelaar, B., ‘t Lam, J., Russelman, M., & Zarazaga, C. (2008). Witwassen: Verslag van een onderzoek voor het Nationaal Dreigingsbeeld 2008. Rotterdam: Korps Landelijke Politiediensten.Google Scholar
  20. Levitt, S., & Venkatesh, S. (2000). An economic analysis of a drugselling gang’s finances. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115(3), 755–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Matrix Knowledge Group. (2007). The illicit drug trade in the United Kingdom (2nd edition) (Online Report): Home Office.Google Scholar
  22. Nelen, H. (2008). Real estate and serious forms of crime. International Journal of Social Economics, 35(10), 751–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Passas, N. (1999). Informal Value Transfer Systems and Criminal Organizations: A study into so-called underground banking networks. Den Haag: WODC.Google Scholar
  24. Passas, N. (2005). Informal value transfer systems and criminal activities (report No. 2005-1). Den Haag: WODC.Google Scholar
  25. PEO. (1996). Inzake opsporing: Enquête opsporingsmethoden, Bijlage VIII: deelonderzoek I onderzoeksgroep Fijnaut: Autochtone, allochtone en buitenlandse criminele groepen. (Parlementaire Enquêtecommissie Opsporingsmethoden No. 0921.7371). Den Haag: Tweede Kamer 1995-1996, 24 072.Google Scholar
  26. Riccardi, M., & Levi, M. (2017). Cash and anti-money laundering. In C. King, C. Walker, & J. Gurule (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Criminal and Terrorism Financing Law. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  27. Soudijn, M. R. J. (2006). Chinese human smuggling in transit. Den Haag: Boom juridische uitgeverij.Google Scholar
  28. Soudijn, M. R. J. (2017). Witwassen: Criminaliteitsbeeldanalyse 2016. Driebergen: Landelijke Eenheid.Google Scholar
  29. Soudijn, M., & Akse, T. (2012). Witwassen: Criminaliteitsbeeldanalyse 2012. Driebergen: Korps landelijke politiediensten - Dienst Nationale Recherche.Google Scholar
  30. Spapens, T. (2006). Interactie tussen criminaliteit en opsporing: De gevolgen van opsporingsactiviteiten voor de organisatie en afscherming an xtc-productie en -handel in Nederland. Antwerpen: Intersentia.Google Scholar
  31. Unger, B., Ferwerda, J., Nelen, H., & Ritzen, L. (2011). Money laundering in the real estate sector: Suspicious properties. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Venkatesh, S. (2008). Gang leader for a day: A rogue sociologist crosses the line. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  33. Vijlbrief, M. (2012). Looking for Displacement Effects: Exploring the Case of Ecstacy and Amphetamine in the Netherlands. Trends in Organized Crime, 15(2&3), 198–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Weenink, A. W. (2015). Behavioral problems and disorders among radicals in police files. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(2), 17–33.Google Scholar
  35. Zaitch, D. (2002). Trafficking cocaine: Colombian drug entrepreneurs in the Netherlands. Den Haag: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Police of the Netherlands, Central Intelligence DivisionZoetermeerNetherlands

Personalised recommendations