Advertisement

Immigration and Terrorism: A Constructed Connection

The Spanish Case
  • María Soledad Saux
Article

Abstract

In the aftermath of 9/11 several European countries intensified their counter-terrorism policy. This article refers to the Spanish response to the terrorist attacks in the USA and Madrid, with special attention paid to the consequences that (illegal) immigrants faced in relation to their rights. This collective is often depicted in public opinion as “folk devils” in the terminology of the Moral-Panics Theory. Using the latter as a model, this paper establishes that the connection between counter-terrorism policy and more restrictive legislation for foreigners is a construction, which is either insufficient or not satisfactorily explained by the social actors who propose it. The result is a policy that limits the immigrants’ liberty without necessarily making the rest safer.

Key words

counter-terrorism “folk devils” immigration “late modernity” Moral-Panics Theory 9/11 Spain 

References

  1. Albrecht, H.-J. (1997). Ethnic minorities, crime and criminal justice in Germany. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Ethnicity, crime and immigration. comparative and cross national perspectives (pp. 31–99). Chicago, London: University of Chicago Pr.Google Scholar
  2. Albrecht, H.-J. (2002) Fortress Europe? Controlling illegal immigration. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 10(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  3. Albrecht, H.-J. (2003) Racial violence in Europe. A comparative study. For the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Freiburg: Max-Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law.Google Scholar
  4. Beckett, K. (2001). Crime and control in the culture of late modernity. Law & Society Review, 35(4), 899–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cancio Meliá, M. (2003). ¿“Derecho penal” del enemigo? In G. Jakobs & M. Cancio Meliá (Eds.), Derecho penal del enemigo (pp. 57–102). Madrid: Ediciones Civitas.Google Scholar
  6. Cancio Meliá, M. (2004). La expulsión de ciudadanos extranjeros sin residencia legal (art. 89 CP). Seminar “Retos de la globalización para el derecho penal”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Derecho, Madrid, Spain, 4th June 2004.Google Scholar
  7. Christie, N. (2004). A suitable amount of crime. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, S. (1972). Folk devils and moral panics: The making of the mods and rockers. London: MacGibbon and Kee.Google Scholar
  9. Garland, D. (2001). The culture of control: Crime and social order in contemporary society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Girling, E., Loader, I., & Sparks, R. (2000). Crime and social change in Middle England: Questions of order in an English Town. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Goode, E., & Ben-Yehuda, N. (1994). Moral panics: The social construction of deviance. Cambridge & Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  12. Institut Für Kriminalwissenschaften Frankfurt A. M. (Hrsg.) (1995) Vom unmöglichen Zustand des Strafrechts. Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, New York, Paris, Wien: Lang.Google Scholar
  13. Jordán, J. (2005). El yihadismo en España: situación actual. Análisis Real Instituto Elcano (ARI) Nro. 93, 11/7/2005.Google Scholar
  14. Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. M. (1997). Fixing broken windows: Restoring order and reducing crime in our communities. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  15. Kepplinger, M., Donsbach, W., Brosius, H.-B., & Staab, J. F. (1986) Medientenor und Bevölkerungsmeinung: Eine empirische studie zum image helmut Kohls. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 38, 247–279.Google Scholar
  16. Kostova Karaboytcheva, M. (2006). Una evaluación del último proceso de regularización de trabajadores extranjeros en España (febrero-mayo de 2005). Un año después. Real Instituto Elcano (DT) Nr. 15, 14/8/2006.Google Scholar
  17. Marx, K. (1960). Capital: Volume one. London: Lawrence & Wishart.Google Scholar
  18. Medina Ariza, J. (2004). Discursos políticos sobre seguridad ciudadana en la historia reciente de España. In: F. Pérez Álvarez (Ed.), Serta: In Memoriam Alexandri Baratta, 1299–1320. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad.Google Scholar
  19. Medina Ariza, J. (2006). Politics of crime in Spain, 1978–2004. Punishment & Society, 8(2), 183–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Melossi, D. (2003). “In a peaceful Life”: Migration and the crime of modernity in Europe/Italy. Punishment & Society, 5(4), 371–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moral de la Rosa, J. (2005). Aspectos penales y criminológicos del terrorismo. Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia: Centro de Estudios Financieros.Google Scholar
  22. Naïr, S. (2006). Y vendrán...: Las migraciones en tiempos hostiles. Barcelona: Bronce.Google Scholar
  23. Reinares, F. (2006). ¿Coinciden el Gobierno y los ciudadanos en qué medidas adoptar contra el terrorismo internacional? Análisis Real Instituto Elcano (ARI) Nr. 78, 10/7/2006.Google Scholar
  24. Sandell, R. (2006). ¿Saltaron o les empujaron? El aumento de la inmigración subsahariana. Análisis Real Instituto Elcano (ARI) Nr. 133, 19/1/2006 (Traducción del inglés).Google Scholar
  25. Sasson, T. (1995). Crime talk: How citizens construct a social problem. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  26. Silva Sánchez, J. M. (1999). La expansión del derecho penal. Aspectos de la política criminal en las sociedades postindustriales. Madrid: Ediciones Civitas.Google Scholar
  27. Solanes Corella, Á. (2004). La realidad local de la inmigración: el padrón municipal como forma de integración. Cuadernos Electrónicos de Filosofía del Derecho, Nr. 10/2004 < http://www.uv.es/CEFD/10/solanes.pdf>.
  28. Spector, M., & Kitsuse, J. I. (1977). Constructing social problems. Menlo Park: Cunnings Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  29. Staab, J. F. (1991). Struktur eines publizistischen Konflikts: Die Berichterstattung über das ‘Soldatenurteil’ in der überregionalen Tagespresse der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 43(1), 70–85.Google Scholar
  30. Varona Martínez, G. (2000). “‘Spain is different’: Beyond an invisible criminal policy?”. In P. Green & A. Rutherford (Eds.), Criminal policy in transition (pp. 221–242). Oxford: Hart Publishing.Google Scholar
  31. Wimmer, A. (1997) Explaining xenophobia and racism: A critical review of current research. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20, 17–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max-Planck Institute for foreign and international criminal lawFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations